(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Children's Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Handbook on steel tanks"

HAND BOOK 



LANCASTER TANKS 



LANCASTER IRON WORKS Inc. 

LANCASTER ",« PENNSYLVANIA 




NTCRNATIONAL 



Digitized by 

The Association for Preservation Technology Internationa! 

For the 

Building Technology Heritage Library 

httpj//archi ve.org/details/buildingtechnologyheritageJLbrary 



Hand Book 
On Steel Tanks 



CONTAINING 

Specifications of Standard Sizes 
and Capacities 

Fire Protection and Insurance Requirements 

for the 

Storage and Use of Volatile Liquids 

Specifications of Steels 
for Various Purposes 

Useful Information and Data 

in connection with 

Design and Installation. 




LANCASTER IRON WORKS, INC. 

LANCASTER, PENNSYLVANIA 

370 Lexington Ave. Land Title Building 

NEW YORK CITY PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



COPYRIGHTED 1930 
LANCASTER IRON WORKS, INC. 



THIS ISA "LANCASTER" TANK 

IF AT ANY TIME INFORMATION IS 
WANTED ABOUT IT REFER TO 



10T45 



LANCASTER IRON WORKS, INC. 

LANCASTER, PA. 



The Lancaster Name Plate 



When a Lancaster Tank or 
Steel Plate job is finished, this 
Lancaster name plate is at- 
tached. 

It carries, besides the refer- 
ence number, a definite mes- 
sage: It presents our declara- 
tion that the product bearing 
this insignia is thoroughly well 
made and is your guarantee 
that you will receive from it the 
fullest measure of efficient ser- 
vice and long life. 



what's Tour Plate Problem? 

No matter what it is 
LANCASTER can help you. 



FACILITIES— Your Needs don't wait at Lancaster — We do our own Engi- 
neering and Designing— We make our own Patterns and operate our own 
Foundry — Your Machine Work, Hydraulic Pressing and Plate Fabricating is 
all done in our own Shops. Unit Control gives you Lower Costs at Lancaster. 

CONSTRUCTION— After your Job is Properly Designed and Detailed by 
our Engineers, it is handled every step of the way by Experienced Foremen, 
trained to build everything to One Standard only — The Best. 

FULL VALUE— You obtain only the Best Grades of Steel or Iron and other 
Materials in Lancaster Products- — unless you specify differently. Accurate 
Design, Correct Materials and Exact Workmanship put Lasting Value and 
True Economy into your Equipment. 

REPUTATION— The Business Integrity of Lancaster Iron Works is well- 
known and easily verified — Lancaster Tanks and Steel Plate Products have 
established their own Reputation, wherever used. 

SERVICE — At Lancaster you will enjoy the benefits of a Well -trained Organ- 
ization — Experienced Shop Personnel — Competent Field Crews- Convenient 
Railroad Facilities — all linked into a Self-contained Unit ready to handle 
your wants without Delay. 

POLICY— You get a Fair Deal— Products just a Little Better and a Personal 
Guarantee. Our Assurance is Your Insurance. 

FOR MANY GOOD REASONS— Send us Your Inquiries and Orders. 



LANCASTER IRON WORKS, INC. 
LANCASTER, PA. 



LANCASTER 



|A m.TTrr-1 



IRON WORKS 



=»♦• 



All Riveted Horizontal Storage Tanks for 
Water, Gasoline, Oil, Etc. 




3| 


>■/ , 


/18*DIA MANHOLE £ 4* 


IS , 


1 • I 

8 1 


"6^ 


1 i 

a o 

O 


1 


>' 




i 


i i. 



^^ 



e 



A' 
2«jS gZZ 



^U^r 



| DETAIL AT HEADS 



§G4UL* 



DETAIL OF 5EAM5 



Our Tanks include Standard Openings and Manhole equal to or as shown 
above. 

See page 15 for Extras on Special Openings. 

All L. I. W. Tanks are built to comply with State and Insurance Laws 
governing the storage and usage of inflammable and combustible liquids. 

See Specifications of Standard Storage Tanks 100 to 25,000 Gallons capacity, Pages six 
to fourteen inclusive. 



LANCASTER 



mNKfi 
It CONlTSUCTIOM W*G 



IRON WORKS 



=£++■ 



Riveted and Welded Horizontal Storage Tanks 
for Water, Gasoline, Oils, Etc. 



/wV 



laOlA MANHOLE 




DETAIL AT HEAD5 



DETAIL OF PIPE CONNECTIONS 



DETAIL AT 5EAM5 



"Riveting for Strength — Welding for Tightness" 
In this method of constructing Storage Tanks only about one-fourth the usual number of 
rivets are used. The seams and rivets instead of being caulked are welded, so that there is no 
chance for a leak. The rivets give the tank rigidity and insure that the plates remain in the 
desired position during welding. Welding does away with the possibility of the seams and 
rivets opening up while the tank is in transit; or from the handling it gets while being 
installed. 

{5} 



♦*je 



LANCASTER 



TANKS 



IRON WORKS 



=**+ 



Horizontal Storage Tanks 



Diam- 


Length 


Thickness 


Capacity 
in Gallons 


Weight 
Pounds 


eter 


Shell 


Heads 


24 " 


5'0" 


9 // 
64 


9 V 
64 


115 


275 


24" 


5'0" 


W 


w 


115 


375 


30" 


5'0" 


9 » 
64 


9 ft 
64 


180 


355 


30" 


5'0" 


X' 


X' 


180 


475 


36" 


5'0" 


X' 


X" 


260 


565 


36" 


5'0" 


X' 


X" 


260 


800 


36" 


6'0" 


X' 


X' 


315 


650 


36" 


6'0" 


X" 


X' 


315 


910 


36" 


7'0" 


X' 


X" 


370 


775 


36" 


7'0" 


X' 


X' 


370 


1020 


36" 


8'0" 


H" 


X' 


425 


850 


36" 


8'0" 


X' 


X' 


425 


1140 


42" 


5'0" 


%" 


X' 


360 


680 


42" 


5'0" 


X' 


X' 


360 


935 


42" 


6'0" 


X" 


X' 


430 


770 


42" 


6'o" 


X' 


X' 


430 


1065 


42" 


8'0" 


X' 


X' 


500 


1000 


42" 


8'0" 


X' 


X' 


500 


1300 


42" 


10 '0" 


X" 


X" 


715 


1185 


42" 


10/0" 


X' 


X" 


715 


1590 


48" 


5'6" 


X" 


X' 


500 


840 


48" 


5 '6" 


X' 


X' 


500 


1150 


48" 


6'0" 


w 


X' 


560 


890 


48" 


6'0" 


X' 


X" 


560 


1210 


48" 


8'0" 


X' 


X" 


750 


1100 


48" 


8'0" 


X" 


X' 


750 


1490 


48* 


11 '0* 


X' 


X' 


1000 


1400 


48" 


11 '0" 


X' 


X" 


1000 


1900 


48" 


16 '0" 


X' 


X" 


1500 


1910 


48" 


16 '0" 


X" 


X" 


1500 


2590 


48" 


22 '0" 


X' 


X" 


2000 


2555 


48" 


22 '0" 


X" 


X" 


2000 


3460 



{6} 



•♦•«= 



LANCASTER 






IRON WORKS 



Horizontal Storage Tanks 



— = 
Diam- 


Length 


Thickness 


Capacity 
in Gallons 


Weight 


eter 


Shell 


Heads 


Pounds 


60" 


6'0" 


%" 


H' 


880 


1505 


60" 


6'0" 


H' 


H' 


880 


1950 


60" 


6'0" 


%" 


Vs" 


880 


2130 


60" 


8'0" 


H' 


X" 


1175 


1770 


60" 


8'0" 


X" 


H' 


1175 


2300 


60" 


8'0" 


W 


Vs" 


1175 


2770 


60" 


10 '0" 


H' 


H' 


1465 


2040 


60" 


10 '0" 


H' 


H' 


1465 


2665 


60" 


10 '0" 


%" 


%" 


1465 


3220 


60" 


12 '0" 


W 


X" 


1760 


2275 


60" 


12 '0" 


H' 


%" 


1760 


2980 


60" 


12 '0" 


%" 


H' 


1760 


3610 


60" 


14 '0' 


%" 


X" 


2050 


2530 


60" 


14 '0" 


X" 


%" 


2050 


3320 


60" 


14 '0" 


%" 


Vs" 


2050 


4040 


60" 


WO 1 


H' 


H' 


2350 


2825 


60" 


16 '0" 


X" 


H' 


2350 


3720 


60" 


ie'o* 


H' 


Vs" 


2350 


4535 


60" 


18 '0" 


3 A" 


X" 


2640 


3095 


60" 


18 '0" 


X" 


w 


2640 


4090 


60" 


18 '0" 


X' 


H' 


2640 


4990 


60" 


20 '0" 


H' 


X" 


2930 


3350 


60" 


20 '0" 


W 


H' 


2930 


4450 


60" 


20 '0" 


%" 


Vs" 


2930 


5420 


60" 


22 '0" 


%" 


X" 


3230 


3620 


60" 


22 '0" 


w 


%' 


3230 


4810 


60" 


22 '0" 


H" 


Vs" 


3230 


5885 


60" 


24 '0 " 


H' 


X" 


3520 


3870 


60" 


24 'G" 


X" 


%" 


3520 


5160 


60" 


24 '0" 


%" 


Vs" 


3520 


6300 


72" 


6'0" 


H' 


X" 


1270 


1950 


72" 


6'0" 


X" 


%" 


1270 


2440 


72" 


6'0" 


%," 


Vs" 


1270 


2920 


72" 


8'0" 


H' 


X" 


1690 


2320 


72" 


8'0" 


H' 


%" 


1690 


2930 



m 



•♦•*= 



LANCASTER 



IRON WORKS 



Horizontal Storage Tanks 



Diam- 


Length 


Thickness 


Capacity 
in Gallons 


Weight 


eter 


Shell 


Heads 


Pounds 


72" 


8'0" 


%" 


H' 


1690 


3530 


72" 


12 '0" 


%' 


H' 


2540 


3030 


72" 


12 '0" 


H 9 


%' 


2540 


3845 


72" 


12 '0" 


H 9 


%" 


2540 


4665 


72" 


14 '0" 


W 


H" 


2960 


3360 


72" 


14 '0" 


U" 


%" 


2960 


4270 


72" 


14 '0" 


H 9 


Vs" 


2960 


5190 


72" 


16 '0" 


H 9 


H' 


3380 


3690 


72" 


16 '0" 


M" 


H' 


3380 


4695 


72" 


16 '0" 


H 9 


%' 


3380 


5715 


72" 


18 '0" 


%" 


Vi" 


3800 


4025 


72" 


18 '0" 


H 9 


H' 


3800 


5120 


72" 


18 '0" 


H 9 


%" 


3800 


6240 


72" 


20 '0" 


H 9 


H' 


4230 


4355 


72" 


20 ■'0* 


W 


%" 


4230 


5545 


72" 


20 '0" 


K 9 


Vs" 


4230 


6765 


72" 


22 '0" 


W 


H' 


4650 


4690 


72" 


22 '0" 


H 9 


X' 


4650 


5970 


72" 


22 '0* 


%" 


H' 


4650 


7295 


72" 


24 '0" 


%" 


H' 


5080 


5020 


72" 


24 V 


H 9 


%" 


5080 


6395 


72" 


24 '0* 


% 9 


Vs" 


5080 


7820 


72" 


26 '0" 


H 9 


H' 


5500 


5350 


72" 


26 '0" 


H 9 


H' 


5500 


6820 


72" 


26 '0" 


%" 


Vs" 


5500 


8345 


72" 


28 '0" 


% 9 


H" 


5920 


5685 


72" 


28 '0" 


H 9 


%" 


5920 


7245 


72" 


28 '0" 


% 9 


Vs" 


5920 


8870 


72" 


30 '0 " 


H 9 


H' 


6345 


6015 


72" 


30 '0" 


H 9 


X' 


6345 


7670 


72" 


30 '0" 


%" 


%" 


6345 


9395 


72" 


32 '0* 


H 9 


H' 


6765 


6350 


72" 


32 '0" 


H 9 


X' 


6765 


8095 


72" 


32 '0" 


W 


Vs" 


6765 


9925 


72" 


34 '0 " 


H 9 


H' 


7190 


6680 


72 ff 


34 '0" 


H 9 


X' 


7190 


8520 



{8} 



♦«= 



LANCASTER 



DnSTRUCTIONHM 



IRON WORKS 



=£♦♦• 



Horizontal Storage Tanks 



Diam- 


Length 


Thickness 


Capacity 
in Gallons 


Weight 


eter 


Shell 


Heads 


Pounds 


72" 


34 '0" 


H' 


Vs" 


7190 


10450 


72" 


36 '0" 


H" 


X' 


7600 


7020 


72" 


36 '0" 


X" 


"A" 


7600 


8930 


72" 


36 '0" 


«' 


W 


7600 


10960 


84" 


6'0" 


X' 


%" 


1725 


2950 


84" 


6'o" 


%" 


Vs" 


1725 


3535 


84" 


6'0" 


Vs" 


H' 


1725 


3955 


84" 


8'0" 


X' 


%' 


2300 


3485 


84" 


8'0" 


H' 


Vs" 


2300 


4200 


84" 


8'0" 


H' 


Vs" 


2300 


4760 


84" 


12 '0" 


X' 


H' 


3455 


4610 


84" 


12 '0" 


W 


Vs" 


3455 


5570 


84" 


12 '0" 


Vs" 


Vs" 


3455 


6430 


84" 


14 '0" 


X" 


H' 


4030 


5080 


84" 


14 '0" 


%' 


Vs" 


4030 


6160 


84" 


14 '0" 


Vs" 


Vs" 


4030 


7140 


B4" 


16 # 0* 


X' 


%' 


4600 


5555 


84" 


16 '0" 


%" 


Vs" 


4600 


6750 


84" 


16 '0" 


Vs" 


Vs" 


4600 


7855 


84" 


18 '0" 


X' 


H' 


5180 


6025 


84" 


18 '0" 


w 


Vs" 


5180 


7340 


84" 


18 '0" 


Vs" 


Vs" 


5180 


8570 


84" 


20 '0" 


X' 


%" 


5760 


6500 


84" 


20 '0* 


%■' 


Vs" 


5760 


7930 


84" 


20 '0" 


Vs" 


Vs" 


5760 


9285 


84" 


22 '0" 


X" 


H' 


6330 


6970 


84" 


22 '0" 


%' 


Vs" 


6330 


8520 


84" 


22 '0" 


Vs" 


Vs" 


6330 


10000 


84" 


24 '0" 


X' 


w 


6910 


7445 


84" 


24 '0" 


%" 


Vs" 


6910 


9110 


84" 


24 '0" 


Vs" 


Vs" 


6910 


10715 


84" 


26 '0" 


X' 


%" 


7435 


7915 


84" 


26 '0" 


%" 


Vs" 


7485 


9700 


84" 


26 '0" 


Vs" 


Vs" 


7485 


11425 


84" 


28 '0" 


X' 


%" 


8060 


8390 



{9} 



LANCASTER 



IRON WORKS 



=!*►♦• 



Horizontal Storage Tanks 



Diam- 


Length 


Thickness 


Capacity 
in Gallons 


Weight 


eter 


Shell 


Heads 


Pounds 


84" 


28 '0" 


X" 


X' 


8060 


10290 


84* 


28 '0" 


Vs" 


X" 


8060 


12140 


84" 


30 '0" 


H' 


X' 


8635 


8860 


84" 


30 '0" 


X' 


X' 


8635 


10880 


84" 


30 '0* 


X' 


Vs" 


8635 


12850 


84" 


32 '0" 


X" 


X' 


9210 


9335 


84" 


32 '0" 


X' 


X' 


9210 


11470 


84" 


32 '0" 


X' 


X' 


9210 


13570 


84" 


34 '0" 


X" 


X' 


9780 


9810 


84" 


34 '0" 


X' 


X' 


9780 


12060 


84" 


34 '0" 


X' 


Vs" 


9780 


14285 


84" 


36 '0" 


X' 


X" 


10360 


10385 


84" 


36 '0" 


X" 


Vs" 


10360 


12765 


84" 


36 '0" 


X' 


Vs" 


10360 


15150 


96" 


8'0" 


X' 


X" 


3000 


4175 


96" 


8'0" 


X' 


Vs" 


3000 


4995 


96" 


8'0" 


X" 


Vs" 


3000 


5555 


96" 


12 '0" 


X' 


X" 


4510 


5485 


96" 


12 '0" 


X' 


Vs" 


4510 


6435 


96" 


12 '0" 


X' 


Vs" 


4510 


7495 


96" 


14 '0" 


X' 


X" 


5260 


6085 


96" 


14 '0" 


X' 


Vs" 


5260 


7135 


96" 


14 '0" 


X' 


Vs" 


5260 


8375 


96" 


16 '0" 


X' 


X" 


6015 


6515 


96" 


16 '0" 


X" 


Vs" 


6015 


7640 


96" 


16 '0" 


X' 


Vs" 


6015 


9250 


96" 


18 '0* 


X' 


X" 


6770 


7130 


96" 


18 '0" 


X' 


Vs" 


6770 


8665 


96" 


18 '0" 


X" 


Vs" 


6770 


10130 


96" 


20 '0" 


X' 


X" 


7520 


7750 


96" 


20 '0" 


X' 


Vs" 


7520 


9360 


96" 


20 '0" 


X' 


Vs" 


7520 


11005 


96" 


21 '6" 


X' 


X" 


8000 


8370 


96" 


21 '6" 


X" 


Vs" 


8000 


10060 


96" 


21%' 


Vs" 


Vs" 


8000 


11885 



Oo> 



♦4S= 



LANCASTER T^lfllS IRON WORKS 



=£♦♦• 



Horizontal Storage Tanks 



Diam- 


Length 


Thickness 


Capacity 
in Gallons 


Weight 


eter 


Shell 


Heads 


Pounds 


96" 


24 '0" 


l A" 


H" 


9020 


8985 


96" 


24 '0" 


%" 


Vs" 


9020 


10755 


96" 


24 '0" 


Vs" 


Vs" 


9020 


12765 


96" 


26 '0" 


M' 


%" 


9775 


9605 


96" 


26 '0" 


W 


Vs" 


9775 


11455 


96" 


26 '0" 


H' 


Vs" 


9775 


13640 


96" 


28 '0" 


H' 


%' 


10520 


10225 


96" 


28 '0" 


H' 


Vs" 


10520 


12155 


96" 


28 '0" 


Vs" 


Vs" 


10520 


14520 


96" 


30 '0" 


H" 


%" 


11280 


10845 


96" 


30 '0" 


H' 


Vs" 


11280 


12850 


96" 


30 '0 " 


Vs" 


Vs" 


11280 


15395 


96" 


32 '0" 


M" 


%" 


12030 


11460 


96" 


32 '0" 


%" 


Vs" 


12030 


13550 


96" 


32 '0" 


Vs" 


Vs" 


12030 


16275 


96" 


34 '0" 


H" 


%" 


12780 


12080 


96" 


34 '0" 


%" 


Vs" 


12780 


14245 


96" 


34 '0" 


Vs" 


Vs" 


12780 


17154 


96" 


36 '0" 


M' 


%" 


13540 


12700 


96" 


36 '0" 


%" 


Vs" 


13540 


14945 


96" 


36 '0" 


Vs" 


Vs" 


13540 


18030 


96" 


38 '0" 


H' 


%" 


14290 


13320 


96" 


38 '0" 


"A" 


Vs" 


14290 


15645 


96" 


38 '0" 


Vs" 


Vs" 


14290 


18910 


96" 


40 '0" 


W 


v«" 


15040 


13465 


96" 


40 '0" 


%' 


Vs" 


15040 


15815 


96" 


40 '0" 


Vs" 


Vs" 


15040 


19125 


108" 


12 '0" 


M" 


%• 


5710 


6040 


108" 


12 '0" 


%" 


Vs" 


5710 


7345 


108" 


12 '0" 


Vs" 


Vs" 


5710 


8355 


108" 


14 '0" 


%' 


%' 


6660 


6630 


108" 


14 '0" 


%" 


Vs" 


6660 


8350 


108" 


14 '0" 


Vs" 


Vs" 


6660 


9245 


108" 


16 '0" 


H' 


%" 


7610 


7270 


108" 


16 '0" 


%" 


Vs" 


7610 


9125 



iu\ 



LANCASTER 



jrmjL^ **.; 



IRON WORKS 





Horizontal Storage Tanks 




Diam- 


Length 


Thickness 


Capacity 
in Gallons 


Weight 


eter 


Shell 


Heads 


Pounds 


108" 


16 '0" 


w 


H" 


7610 


10210 


108'' 


18 '0" 


M* 


%' 


8565 


7910 


108" 


18 '0" 


%' 


%" 


8565 


9900 


108" 


18 '0" 


H* 


Vs" 


8565 


11180 


108" 


20 '0" 


W 


%* 


9520 


8555 


108" 


20 '0" 


%" 


Vs" 


9520 


10680 


108" 


20 '0* 


Vs" 


%' 


9520 


12150 


108" 


22 '0* 


H" 


%" 


10000 


9195 


108" 


22 '0" 


H* 


%" 


10000 


11455 


108" 


22 '0" 


Vs" 


%' 


10000 


13120 


108" 


24 '0" 


l A" 


H* 


11420 


9840 


108" 


24 '0" 


%" 


H' 


11420 


12235 


108" 


24 '0" 


%• 


Vs" 


11420 


14085 


108" 


26 '0" 


W 


%" 


12370 


10480 


108" 


26 '0" 


w 


%' 


12370 


13010 


108" 


26 '0" 


H' 


H* 


12370 


15055 


108" 


28 '0" 


H" 


%" 


13320 


11125 


108" 


28 '0" 


%" 


Vs" 


13320 


13785 


108" 


28 '0" 


Vs" 


w 


13320 


16025 


108" 


30 '0" 


H" 


%" 


14275 


11760 


108" 


30 '0* 


%• 


w 


14275 


14565 


108" 


30 '0" 


%" 


H* 


14275 


16995 


108" 


32 '0" 


w 


H* 


15220 


12405 


108" 


32 '0" 


%' 


Vs" 


15220 


15340 


108" 


32 '0" 


%' 


%• 


15220 


17965 


108" 


34 '0" 


K* 


%" 


16175 


13050 


108" 


34 '0" 


H* 


Vs" 


16175 


16120 


108" 


34 '0" 


W 


Vs" 


16175 


18930 


108" 


36 '0" 


K* 


%" 


17130 


13690 


108" 


36 '0" 


W 


%» 


17130 


16895 


108" 


36 '0" 


Vs" 


Vs" 


17130 


19900 


108" 


38 '0" 


H" 


%" 


18080 


14335 


108" 


38 '0" 


%' 


w 


18080 


17675 


108" 


38 '0" 


%• 


H 9 


18080 


20870 


108" 


40 '0" 


W 


%" 


19035 


14970 


108" 


40 '0" 


H' 


Vs" 


19035 


18460 


108" 


40 '0* 


W 


Vs" 


19035 


21830 



02* 



•♦«= 



LANCASTER 



tA*S» 






IRON WORKS 



Horizontal Storage Tanks 



Diam- 


Length 


Thickness 


Capacity 

in Gallons 


Weight 


eter 


Shell 


Heads 


Pounds 


120" 


12 '0" 


H' 


Vs" 


7050 


7460 


120" 


12 '0" 


X' 


Vs" 


7050 


8510 


120" 


12 '0" 


Vs" 


Vs" 


7050 


9710 


120" 


14 '0* 


H' 


Vs" 


8225 


8135 


120" 


14 '0" 


X' 


Vs" 


8225 


9355 


120" 


14 '0" 


H' 


Vs" 


8225 


10720 


120" 


16 '0" 


X" 


Vs" 


9400 


8805 


120" 


16 '0" 


X' 


Vs" 


9400 


10195 


120" 


16 '0" 


Vs" 


Vs" 


9400 


11730 


120" 


18 '0" 


M' 


Vs" 


10575 


9540 


120" 


18 '0" 


X' 


Vs" 


10575 


11100 


120" 


18 '0" 


X' 


Vs" 


10575 


12835 


120" 


20'7j^ ff 


M' 


Vs" 


12000 


10295 


120" 


20 '7Ji' 


X' 


Vs" 


12000 


12040 


120" 


20'7H" 


Vs" 


Vs" 


12000 


13970 


120" 


22 '0" 


X" 


Vs" 


12925 


11050 


120" 


22 '0" 


%" 


Vs" 


12925 


12980 


120" 


22 '0" 


Vs" 


Vs" 


12925 


15100 


120" 


24 '0" 


H' 


Vs" 


14100 


11805 


120" 


24 '0" 


X' 


Vs" 


14100 


13920 


120" 


24 '0" 


Vs" 


Vs" 


14100 


16240 


120" 


26 '3" 


X' 


Vs" 


15000 


12560 


120" 


26 '3" 


X' 


Vs" 


15000 


14860 


120" 


26 '3" 


Vs" 


Vs" 


15000 


17375 


120" 


28 '0" 


X' 


Vs" 


16450 


13315 


120" 


28 '0" 


%" 


Vs" 


16450 


15800 


120" 


28 '0" 


Vs" 


Vs" 


16450 


18510 


120" 


30 '0" 


X" 


Vs" 


17625 


14070 


120" 


30 '0" 


%" 


Vs" 


17625 


16740 


120" 


30 '0" 


Vs" 


Vs" 


17625 


19645 


120" 


30'11" 


X" 


Vs" 


18000 


14825 


120" 


30 '11" 


X' 


Vs" 


18000 


17680 


120" 


30'11* 


Vs" 


Vs" 


18000 


20780 


120" 


34 '0" 


X" 


Vs" 


20000 


15580 


120" 


34 '0" 


%" 


Vs" 


20000 


18620 


120" 


34 '0" 


Vs" 


Vs" 


20000 


21910 



<13> 



•♦«= 



LANCASTER 



TANKS 



IRON WORKS 



=«*■ 



Horizontal Storage Tanks 



Dia. 


Length 


Thickness 


Capacity 
in Gallons 


Weight 




Shell 


Heads 


Pounds 


120" 


36 '0" 


w 


X' 


21150 


16335 


120" 


36 '0* 


w 


%" 


21150 


19560 


120" 


36 '0" 


w 


%" 


21150 


23050 


120" 


38 '0" 


\c 


X' 


22325 


17090 


120" 


38 '0" 


w 


%" 


22325 


20500 


120" 


38 '0" 


%' 


X' 


22325 


24190 


120" 


40 '0" 


w 


X' 


23500 


17845 


120" 


40 '0" 


%• 


Vs" 


23500 


21440 


120" 


40 '0" 


%° 


3 A" 


23500 


25325 


120" 


42 '0" 


w 


Vs" 


25000 


18600 


120" 


42 '0" 


%• 


Vs" 


25000 


22380 


120" 


42 '0" 


w 


Vs" 


25000 


26460 


126" 


18 '0" 


%* 


Vs" 


11520 


11800 


126" 


18 '0" 


Vs" 


Vs" 


11520 


13630 


126" 


24 '0" 


%" 


X" 


15360 


14545 


126" 


24 '0" 


%° 


X' 


15360 


16945 


126" 


30 '0" 


%" 


X* 


19200 


17345 


126" 


30 '0" 


w 


X" 


19200 


20360 


126" 


36 '0* 


%" 


X" 


23040 


20200 


126 ff 


36 '0" 


%' 


X" 


23040 


23715 


126" 


39 '0" 


H* 


X" 


25000 


21960 


126" 


39 '0* 


%' 


H" 


25000 


25880 



Important 

Before ordering tanks, be sure to find out what the State Laws are in 
your district, covering the minimum thickness of plate that can be used 
for various capacities, and how close to buildings tanks can be located. 

If you want us to find this out for you, we will do so gladly. 

See following pages for Installation Recommendations. 

All size Tanks shown in preceding tables can be made up for prompt ship- 
ment, either in All-Riveted or Riveted and Welded Construction. 

These Tanks can all be sent out from shops completely made-up. Write for 
prices on larger Tanks requiring field erection or special design. 

{14 J 



LANCASTER T™! US IRON WORKS 

Horizontal Storage Tanks 
Information and Recommendations 

Our prices on tanks include standard openings. On tanks 60 inches in diam- 
eter and larger they include one 18 inch diameter wrought steel nozzle type 
manhole with bolted cover as shown. 

All openings are figured at $1.00 per inch of diameter, so if you require more 
or less than is our standard, you can figure accordingly. 

Heating coils furnished if desired, at extra cost. 

Combination welded-riveted and all riveted construction furnished at same 
prices. 

Structural steel supports furnished extra, any style or height. 

We recommend that nothing lighter than % inch plate be used for under- 
ground storage, or in tanks over 72 inches in diameter. 

Where tanks up to 72 inches in diameter are elevated on concrete piers, we 
recommend that the piers be at least 12 inches wide and long enough so that 
the tank will have a bearing surface of at least one-third of its circumference. 
Over 72 inches, the piers should be from 15 to 18 inches thick. If possible, there 
should be one pier to each course with not more than 8 feet centers, and the 
piers should be so arranged that they come near the ends of the tank, and so 
spaced that they do not cover the girth seams. 

Where a tank is to be buried underground and the top of it is to be more than 
one foot below the surface we ask that you write us for our recommendations 
regarding design, etc. 

We recommend that where tanks are buried underground, provision be 
made for draining the pit, so that water will not collect and float the tank when 
empty, thus breaking pipe connections. 

Lancaster Storage Tanks are constructed strong enough to withstand liquid 
storage pressure without bracing. One-piece flat heads used. 

All material best quality Class "A" Open Hearth Steel. 

All rivets and seams carefully caulked or riveted and welded and tanks tested 
under 5 to 10 pounds air pressure. 

Painted outside one coat protective paint. 

All openings plugged for shipment. Cast Iron Plugs. 

Tanks over 5 feet in diameter loaded with overhead cranes, blocked and 
rodded to car to prevent damage in transit. 

We recommend that a tank should not be longer than five times its diameter. 

Manhole cover can be tapped for fill pipe or any other connection, if desired. 
Price $1.00 per inch of diameter for extra pipe openings. 

Any tanks listed here can be shipped completely made up on one car. 

Capacity chart showing number of gallons per inch of height of any tank 
supplied by us, will be furnished on request. 

05> 




LANCASTER TjggJlS IRON WORKS 



Horizontal Storage Tanks 
Information and Recommendations-Continued 

ciss: ■* c w a e n h fi a „ v d 7s^r f ms 2 di r eters - * *» « 

suit your requirements. " k ° f greater d 'ameter that will 

sheTAllla'eTaws" a^atlh™ .T ^ ^ three th!ck — of 
congested -1^^^^^^^^^^ is g reater as in 

it E T\7detaiVed1pe T cf^atLt C a a nd his'oTo'f ^t T referCnCe nUmbe " ° n 
in our files, and if at any t?me fn the Ee fnf^ ^ ^ carefu "y Preserved 
can be obtained by writLgTo S ^ffij UfiSa? - abOUt * * 

Classification of Steels 

Structural Steel for Bridges A7-29 
Structural Steel for Buildings A9-29 

spe^Tattons^dbo^ ""*?* and str -ture of these two 

facture of tan ks to i^S^^XTSSS^JSSZ 

{16} 



LANCASTER 



!A*BBEI 



faSTCEL HAM CQNVTRUCTIOhHH 



IRON WORKS 



Classification of Steels — Continued 

Tensile Strength is from 55,000 lbs. to 65,000 lbs. per square inch and the 
Class "A" Steels resemble Flange or Boiler Steel so closely, that there is no 
appreciable difference, as can be seen from extracts taken from typical Testing 
Reports covering the two steels: 



Chemical Analysis 



Carb. Mang. 
Flange Steel .21 .47 

Class A Steel .21 .48 



Pounds Per Square Inch 







Yield 


Tensile 


Phos. 


Sulph. 


Point 


Strength 


.015 


.037 


35,700 


59,700 


.029 


.034 


37,400 


64,200 



These are bona fide figures and are representative of the class of steel under 
A. S. T. M. specifications we are recommending and using in all ordinary tank 
work. We prefer that customers should state for what purpose tanks are to be 
used, or what pressures they are to work under, if any, also what codes or laws 
must be observed and we will then specify and use the proper class of steel for 
the job. 

There is no increase in the cost of Class "A" steels over steels with indefinite 
specifications and as they are superior in so many ways, Lancaster early saw 
the especial advantages to be obtained for the customer and has been making 
Class "A" Lancaster Tanks for some years. 

There are distinct advantages in using various types of steels for different 
purposes and our Engineers will be glad to recommend and suggest the proper 
kinds for tanks of any description or for any purpose. 




Horizontal Storage Tanks on Structural Supports 
Furnished any style or height. 



in} 



LANC ASTER TXSS^S IRON WORKS 



Copper Bearing Steel 

st n eersta°k n s S " 0rPUre *"" haVe "° advm ^ ^SSSfiffSS 

/? ~jS^ U % tU ^ al ^^neers Handbook 
By M1J0 S. Ketchum—Dean of CoJJege 
of Engineering 
, CtoiV. o/ IJJinois. 

butThat'Vs^o 8 ^ 06 ° f S l eel / S eXP ° Sed t0 the at ™sphere there is no question 
out that .15 to .30 percent of copper prolongs the life very materially 

—American Society of Testing Materials. 

tk^SSfe 8 ^^^ good rust resisting qualities under the c ° ndi - 

—Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 
— Pittsburgh Testing Laboratory 

Copper m steel increases its ductility, retards corrosion and insures long wear. 

Use Copper Bearing Steel 



08} 



LANCASTER "E^ffi IIS IRON WORKS 
Life of Buried Steel Tanks 

As the life of a buried steel tank is a pertinent subject in connection with 
underground tank installations, the following information from "Fuel Oil In- 
stallations," published by the Associated Factory Mutual Fire Insurance 
Companies and which is based on the investigations and wide experience of 
their Inspection Department, is interesting and important. 

In order to have definite facts regarding the probable life of buried 
steel tanks, to observe the effects of different kinds of soil upon the 
steel, and to note the comparative value of various protective coatings, 
twenty-eight steel tanks have been uncovered and examined. 

The tanks inspected have been in service for periods ranging from 
eighteen months to twenty-six years and were buried from ten inches 
to nine feet below the ground level. The soil surrounding them con- 
sisted of sand, gravel, loam, clay, cinders, or mixtures of these, and 
sometimes contained ground water and in a few cases salt tide water. 

The tanks chosen were cylindrical in shape, horizontally placed with 
one exception, and varied in capacity from 1100 to 22000 gallons. In 
only a few instances were the tanks entirely uncovered. Ordinarily, a 
test pit was dug large enough to expose one end and a section of the 
side down to the center line. The type of fill, kind of protective coating, 
character of corrosion, condition and thickness of the metal were 
noted; and in a few cases a sample of the incrustation on the tank and 
also of the soil was obtained for analysts. 

"The life of a buried steel tank depends on the kind of protective 
coating, the type of back-fill, nature of ground water, depth of bury 
and the existence of stray electrical currents. 

"Experience indicates that the best coating for buried black steel 
tanks or piping is red lead and linseed oil, applied carefully to a well 
cleaned metal surface with an outer protective coating of asphalt. Red 
lead and oil alone or asphalt alone give reasonably good protection if 
the film is unbroken. 

"Steel tanks protected by paint and buried under favorable con- 
ditions should be serviceable for considerably more than thirty years. 
Even when buried in poor soil and damp ground, they will last for 
fifteen to twenty years. 

"Types of soil in their order of desirability for fill around steel tanks 
are as follows: 

"(1) Sand; (2) Gravel ;(3) Clay; (4) Loam. Cinder fill has been known to 
cause extremely rapid corrosion and should not be allowed in the 
vicinity of buried steel. Coal piles should not be located over oil tanks 
or piping. 

"Where the soil contains corrosive substances special protection may 
be required. This may be accomplished by back filling with moist clay 
well rammed, or by coating the entire tank with a shell of reinforced 
concrete." 

O0> 



♦*= 



LANCASTER TMk*f IIS IRON WORKS 



=#♦■ 



Information Regarding a State Permit in 

Pennsylvania for the Storage of Volatile 

Inflammable Liquids 

Secure from Bureau of Fire Protection— Pennsylvania State Police, Harris- 
burg, Pennsylvania, a set of "Regulations" and an application blank requiring 
the following information: — 

Name and Location. 

Size of tank in gallons. 

Name of Manufacturer. 

Liquid to be handled. 

Material, specifications and style of construction. 

Method of installation — under ground or above ground. 

Construction of Vault, if used. 

Description of Supports or Base. 

Distance to nearest buildings and nearby tanks. 

Number of feet below surface (3 feet required). 

Ventilating arrangements, location of Fill Pipe, system of Lighting, means 
of Fire Extinguishing available, distance to adjoining property lines, etc. 

Applications are to be accompanied by Plan or Diagram similar to typical 
sketch shown below for Above Ground Tanks and on opposite page for 
underground Tanks. 

Plan Fax 
Above Ground Installation 

(<300'RaOIU3 KEQViRBD) 




<20> 



LANCASTER 



MEJKfWEl 



t comstnuciiomH 



IRON WORKS 



•Hie 



aj>+- 



Storage Tank Regulations 

State Laws and Insurance Requirements in various parts of the country- 
must be carefully adhered to when storing volatile inflammable or combustible 
liquids in steel tanks. 

Lancaster Tanks are designed and built to conform to all existing laws and 
regulations, but before ordering or specifying tanks, it is advisable for cus- 
tomers to investigate the laws covering installation of tanks at the specified 
location and not only assure themselves that the laws are being complied with 
but also to make proper application for permit to install tanks under the neces- 
sary regulations. 




FLAN rcaz 
Underground Installation 



RCSK&r* 



Oakage 



Residence 
Nearest 
Bosernenl 



SlD£WALM 



J»\ 



w~ 



•CZL 



7> 

FUMF* AMD TAflK 

h be installed 



MAIN 3TZFET 



Meanest fank 
io propasea 
insial lahon 



fire Hvj 



In Pennsylvania, to secure a permit it is only necessary to apply to the 
Pennsylvania State Police, Bureau of Fire Protection, Harrisburg, Pennsyl- 
vania, and a complete set of regulations along with application blank will be 
furnished. Other states which have such regulations, take care of the issuing 
of permits in a similar way. 

Lancaster Iron Works carries on hand copies of many State or Insurance 
regulations and will assist customers at any time to obtain the proper informa- 
tion and specifications as part of our regular service. 

Comparison of Regulations Covering Horizontal 
Storage Tanks 

Some regulations require heavier metal in storage tanks than others or joints 
with higher efficiencies and some specify heavier metal in underground tanks 
than for above ground tanks. 

Pennsylvania Regulations require that plan or diagram covering above 
ground installation must be submitted showing proposed location of tank and 
drawing-off device, etc., distance therefrom to point of adjoining property 
lines in each direction ; distance from all buildings on the premises, and distance 



{21} 



LANCASTER l*n«XK$a IRON WORKS 



from all buildings immediately outside of the property lines, including oc- 
cupancy and use of buildings indicated, and such other information as re- 
quired on the application form. 

As these regulations are typical of most other State requirements 
the following extracts from the Pennsylvania regulations issued 1929 
are of general interest: 

Section 7. Tanks for the storage of volatile inflammable liquids and kero- 
sene, shall be placed outside of buildings and underground, except as otherwise 
provided, not less than two feet below the surface, entirely surrounded by earth 
well tamped in place, with a masonry foundation or base of concrete brick or 
stone, at least six inches thick. If impracticable to locate tanks outside of 
buildings, they may be buried below level of basement or cellar floor, imbedded 
in earth well tamped and covered by at least two feet of earth, with a base or 
foundation of concrete at least six inches thick, excepting that no tank used for 
the storage of volatile inflammable liquid will be permitted under any building 
not of fire-resistive construction, or where such building is used in whole or in 
part as a place of public assembly or habitation. Kerosene tanks shall not be 
placed under any buildings used for public assembly. The limit of storage per- 
mitted shall depend upon the location of tanks with respect to the building to 
be supplied and adjacent buildings, as follows, excepting that tanks exceeding 
3000 gallons capacity will not be permitted in the fire zone of any city, borough 
or district, or in any other locality where such installation would constitute a 
dangerous hazard. 

(a) Unlimited capacity if lower than the floor, basement, cellar or pit of any 
building within a radius of fifty feet. 

(b) 20,000 gallons total capacity if lower than the floor, basement, cellar or 
pit of any building within thirty feet radius. 

_ (c) 5,000 gallons total capacity if lower than the floor, basement, cellar or 
pit of any building within twenty feet radius. 

(d) 1,500 gallons total capacity if lower than the floor, basement, cellar or 
pit of any building within ten feet radius. 

(e) 500 gallons if not lower than every floor, basement, cellar or pit of any 
building within ten feet, in which case it must be entirely encased in six inches 
of concrete. 

(f) Where tanks are used for kerosene, exclusively, the capacities may be 
doubled and the distances reduced one-half in paragraphs, (c), (d) and (e) in 
this section. v ' 

(g) Tanks not exceeding 60 gallons capacity, where same would be so lo 
cated as not to permit vehicular traffic passing over the ground surrounding 
same, may be installed outside of buildings without base as otherwise required 
in this section, at a depth of not less than 18 inches below the surface. 

Section 8 Tanks may be placed in vaults where air space therein shall be 
filled in and solidly tamped with earth or sand. 

Section 9. Where impracticable to place tanks underground, they mav be 
placed outside aboveground under the following direction, provided that 
aboveground tanks shall be restricted in fire zones, and shall not constitute a 
hazard where erected: 

{my 



LANCASTER 



IRON WORKS 



=8M- 



Thickness of Steel Plates in Horizontal Storage 
Tanks as Required in Pennsylvania 

Capacity (Gallons) Minimum Thickness of Material 

1 to 350 16 gauge — equivalent to }4* 

351 to 560 14 gauge — equivalent to A* 

561 to 1,100 12 gauge — equivalent to •&* 

1,101 to 4,000 7 gauge— equivalent to %>" 

4,001 to 10,500 M" 

10,501 to 20,000 %>" 

20,001 to 30,000 y s " 



Thickness of Steel Plates in Horizontal Storage 
Tanks as Required by the Under wr iters' 
Laboratories — Established and Main- 
tained by the National Board 
of Fire Underwriters 

Capacity and Size — Horizontal Tan\s: 

1. Horizontal tanks shall not exceed the maximum capacities, diam- 
eters, or lengths for the corresponding gauges of metal outlined in the 
following table, except as noted below. 



u. s. s. 


Approx. 


Maximum 


Maximum 


Maximum 


Gauge 


Thickness 


Capacity 


Diameter 


Length of 


Metal 


Inches 


U. S. Gal. 


Inches 


Shell Feet 


16 


X 


285 


38 


8 


14 


A 


560 


46 


11 


12 


A 


1,100 


56 


14 


7 


% 


4,000* 


84* 


22* 


3 


H 


12,000* 


126* 


32* 





% 


20,000* 


132* 


42* 


000 


y% 


30,000* 


132* 


50* 



*To take care of miscalculations and mistakes in fabrication, for tanks made of No. 7 or 
heavier gauge metal, a tolerance of 10 per cent in capacity and a tolerance of 5 per cent in 
either the diameter or the length will be permitted. This does not mean that tanks made of 
No. 7 or heavier gauge stock should be intentionally designed to have capacities, diameters, 
or lengths in excess of the nominal maximums designated above for such stocks. 

— Underwriter's Laboratories 



{23} 



♦4S= 



LANCASTER X^lflSlS IRON WORKS 



Department of Public Safety 
Commonwealth of Massachusetts 

(Extract from Laws and Regulations — 1929) 

Horizontal Tanks 

Section 4 The minimum thickness of shell plates used in horizontal tanks 
shall be M when the tank does not exceed 10' 6" in diameter. When a tank 
exceeds 10 6 in diameter the minimum thickness of shell plates shall be %" 
u £" a „ t z? nk 'I °7 er 24 ' in length the mi ninium thickness of shell plates shall 
i? ™ l,MH n Z ° f a horizontal ta nk are not dished to the proper radius 

they shall be stiffened with channel or angle irons securely riveted to the heads 
The heads shall be at least the same thickness as shell. 

Riveting 

SeC l it ?/// 5 V- A11 Seams sha11 be sub stantially riveted; when the plate does not 
exceed % thick the minimum size of rivets after driving shall be %\ and the 
maximum pitch of rivets for single riveting shall be 2^". The maximum pitch 
of rivets for double riveting shall be %%\ When the thickness of shell plates 
exceeds % the size of the rivets and pitch of rivets may be increased in such 
a manner as to insure substantial caulking. The rivet holes shall be fair: and 
the rivets shall be driven so as to fill the rivet holes and form substantial heads 
on the rivets. The caulking edges may be caulked and made tight, or they may 
be electrical y welded in such a manner that, in case of a leak, the welding 
may be caulked. The use of a drift pin is prohibited in lining up rivet holes. 
The distance from center of rivet holes to edge of plate must be at least XVo 
times the diameter of rivet holes. 

Computing Strength 

Section 12. When the fluid to be stored in any tank has a specific gravity of 
one or less, the specific gravity of one shall be used and the strength of tank 
shall be computed on a factor of safety of three. When the fluid to be stored in 
any tank has a specific gravity of more than one, that specific gravity shall be 
used, and the strength of the tank shall be computed on a factor of safety of 
four. 

Formula for Computing Strength of Tank- 
Section 13. TSxTx eff 

RxFS 

TS = Tensile strength of shell plates. 

T = Thickness of shell plates in inches, 
eff = Efficiency of longitudinal riveted seams. 

R — }4 Diameter of tank in inches. 
FS = Factory of safety. 

It will be noted that the Massachusetts regulations are somewhat stricter 
than the Underwriter's specifications and the Pennsylvania regulations and 
as the Pennsylvania laws are typical of most states this brief summary should 
give customers an idea as to their general requirements. 

{24} 



LANCASTER "I^EHS IRON WORKS 

+ m — *»+• 

City of New York 

Municipal Rules in New York City covering the construction of Horizontal 
Storage Tanks are issued by the Board of Standards and Appeals and the Fire 
Commissioner and the Superintendent of Buildings are the administrative 
officials. 

Material and Construction of Tanks for the 
Storage of Fuel Oil 

Section 1. Cylindrical Tanks (except vertical tanks lo- 
cated outside of buildings above ground). 

(a) All tanks for the storage of fuel oil shall be built of steel plates made by 
the open hearth process and known to the trade as "tank steel.'* Such plates 
shall be free from physical imperfections, such as laminations cracks, etc. All 
steel must be new, in good condition and free from rust. The thickness of steel 
required and the size and spacing of rivets shall be as stated in the table given 
below. 

(b) All tanks must be welded, riveted and caulked, or riveted and welded. 
Flanges or other pipe connections may be welded. All caulking shall be done 
with round nose tools and without injury to the plates. 

(c) Thickness of cylindrical tanks : 

Tanks 36 in. in diameter and less — 34 in. shell, J-i in. heads. 
Tanks 37 to 72 in. in diameter — J4 in. shell, j^e in. heads. 
Tanks 73 to 120 in. in diameter — % in. shell, %> in- heads. 
Tanks over 120 inches in diameter to be of % in. steel and to be stiffened by 
angle rings or equivalent members so as to retain their cylindrical form. 

(d) All cylindrical tanks shall preferably be built with dished heads. Should 
flat heads be used they must be braced in the same manner as described for the 
bracing of flat sides of rectangular tanks. 

(e) Diameter and spacing of rivets : 

Riveting in single lap seams shall not exceed a pitch as follows: 
In shell 34 in. thick, Y% in. diameter rivets 2j^ in. pitch. 
In shell % in. thick, % in. diameter rivets 2% in. pitch. 
In shell z /% in. thick, % in. diameter rivets 2)4, in. pitch. 

Section 4. Outside of Buildings Below Ground. 

(a) Tanks shall be buried underground below the level of any piping to which 
they may be connected, with the tops of the tanks not less than two (2) feet 
below the surface of the ground; or, in lieu of the two (2) foot cover of earth, 
tanks may be buried under twelve (12) inches of earth, well tamped, covered by 
at least six (6) inches of concrete ; which shall extend at least one foot beyond 
the horizontal outline of tanks in all directions. Where necessary to prevent 
floating, tanks shall be securely anchored. 

(b) Tanks shall be set on concrete or metal cradles which shall be placed on 
firm soil and surrounded with soft earth or sand well tamped. Tanks shall be 
completely encased with six (6) inches of concrete when buried in soil the nature 
of which would make additional protection necessary. 

<25> 



■♦« 



LANCASTER T™IItS 



IRON WORKS 



!£♦+ 



Pressure Storage Tanks for Water, Air 
and Chemicals 

Specifications of Standard Capacities 
115 to 23,600 Gallons 

Pages 27 to 32 inclusive 




Specially Designed 

Tanks for 

High Pressures 

Built to Specifications 




Standard 15,000 Gallon Tank 
8 ft. dia. x 40 ft. long — Riveted Construction 



{my 



LANCASTER TMklf US IRON WORKS 



■♦*= 



=»♦■ 



Pressure Tanks 



Diameter 


Length 


Thickness 


Capacity 
in Gallons 


Weight 
Pounds 


Working 
Pressure 
F. S.=4 

Lbs, 




Shell 


Heads 




' 24" 


5'0" 


H' 


H" 


115 


335 


119 




*24" 


5'0* 


H' 


X" 


115 


370 


119 




24" 


5'0* 


X' 


X" 


115 


455 


170 




24" 


6'0" 


H' 


H' 


140 


395 


119 


< 


*24" 


6'0" 


H' 


X' 


140 


430 


119 


CO 


24" 


6'0" 


X' 


X' 


140 


530 


170 




24" 


8'0" 


W 


H' 


190 


495 


119 




*24" 


8'0" 


H' 


X' 


190 


530 


119 




( 24" 


8'0" 


X' 


X' 


190 


655 


170 




' 30" 


5'0" 


%" 


H' 


185 


455 


95 




*30" 


5'0" 


«' 


X' 


185 


505 


95 




30" 


5'0" 


X" 


X' 


185 


610 


136 




30" 


6'0" 


H" 


H" 


220 


535 


95 




*30" 


6'0" 


%" 


X' 


220 


585 


95 


K 


30" 


6'0" 


X" 


X" 


220 


705 


136 


w 


30" 


8'0" 


W 


H' 


295 


640 


95 




*30" 


8'0" 


H' 


X" 


295 


690 


95 




30" 


8'0" 


H' 


X' 


295 


840 


136 




30" 


lO'O" 


W 


H" 


365 


780 


95 




*30" 


10'0" 


%" 


X' 


365 


830 


95 




30" 


lO'O" 


M" 


X' 


365 


1025 


136 




36" 


6'0" 


H" 


H" 


315 


650 


79 




*36" 


6'0" 


%" 


%" 


315 


790 


79 




36" 


6'0" 


X" 


%" 


315 


930 


113 




36" 


8'0" 


H' 


H" 


425 


830 


79 




*36* 


8'0" 


%' 


%" 


425 


970 


79 


* < 


36" 


8'0" 


X' 


%' 


425 


1155 


113 


w 


36" 


lO'O" 


%" 


H" 


525 


1010 


79 




*36" 


lO'O" 


H' 


%" 


525 


1150 


79 




36" 


lO'O" 


x m 


H" 


525 


1395 


113 




36" 


12'0" 


%" 


H" 


530 


1150 


79 




*36" 


12'0" 


%" 


%" 


630 


1290 


79 




36" 


12'0" 


X" 


%" 


630 


1580 


113 



Quality in tanks cannot be acquired by words nor a coat 1 of black paint. 

It must be present from the beginning, 
♦Standard sizes carried in stock for prompt shipment. 

an 



LANCASTER 



EEL PIATE COMSTMUCTIOMHH 



IRON WORKS 



Pressure Tanks 



Diameter 


Length 


Thickness 


Capacity 
in Gallons 


Weight 
Pounds 


Working 
Pressure 




Shell 


Heads 


F. S.=4 
Lbs. 


. ( 36" 
*\ *36" 


14'0" 


M" 


H' 


735 


1360 


79 


14'0" 


X' 


X' 


735 


1500 


79 


m { 36" 


14'0" 


X" 


X' 


735 


1840 


113 




42" 


6'0" 


X' 


X' 


430 


770 


68 




*42" 


6'o* 


X" 


X" 


430 


1100 


97 




42" 


6'0" 


X" 


X" 


430 


1240 


78 




42" 


8'0" 


X" 


X' 


575 


1000 


68 




*42" 


8'0" 


X" 


X" 


575 


1370 


97 




42" 


8'0" 


X" 


X" 


575 


1560 


78 




42" 


lO'O" 


X' 


X' 


720 


1230 


68 




*42" 


lO'O" 


X" 


X' 


720 


1640 


97 


< 


42" 


lO'O" 


X' 


X" 


720 


1885 


78 


09 


42" 


i2'o" 


X" 


X' 


865 


1460 


68 




*42" 


12'0" 


X" 


X" 


865 


1910 


97 




42" 


12'0" 


X" 


X" 


865 


2210 


78 




42" 


14'0" 


X' 


X" 


1000 


1690 


68 




*42" 


14'0" 


X" 


X" 


1000 


2180 


97 




42" 


14'0" 


X" 


X" 


1000 


2530 


78 




42" 


16'0" 


X" 


X" 


1150 


1920 


68 




*42" 


16'0" 


X" 


X" 


1150 


2455 


97 




42" 


16'0* 


X" 


X" 


1150 


2855 


78 




48" 


8'0* 


X' 


X" 


750 


1100 


59 




*48" 


8'0" 


X" 


H" 


750 


1700 


85 




48" 


8'0" 


X" 


%" 


750 


1920 


85 




48" 


lO'O" 


X' 


X" 


950 


1375 


59 




*48" 


lO'O" 


X" 


%" 


950 


1985 


85 


< 


48" 


lO'O" 


X" ' 


H" 


950 


2260 


85 


w 


48" 


12'0" 


X' 


X' 


1100 


1650 


59 




*48" 


12'0" 


X" 


Vs" 


1100 


2275 


85 




48" 


12'0" 


X' 


H' 


1100 


2595 


85 




48" 


14'0" 


H' 


X' 


1300 


1910 


59 




*48" 


14'0" 


X" 


Vs" 


1300 


2560 


85 




48" 


14'0" 


X' 


Vs" 


1300 


2935 


85 



Tanks and Steel Plate work of every description look so much alike that the inten- 
tion and the ability of the maker form the only sound basis for preference and 

selec tion . 
♦Standard sizes carried in stock for prompt shipment. 

{26} 



LANCASTER 






S5SEI 



IRON WORKS 



•♦♦s= 



Pressure Tanks 



Diameter 


Length 


Thickness 


Capacity 
in Gallons 


Weight 
Pounds 


Working 
Pressure 




Shell 


Heads 


F. S.=4 
Lbsl 




48" 


16'0" 


%* 


w 


1500 


2180 


59 




*48" 


16'0" 


U" 


H" 


1500 


2850 


85 




48" 


w 


%" 


X' 


1500 


3275 


85 




48" 


20'0" 


H* 


X' 


1880 


2450 


59 




*48" 


20'0" 


W 


Vs" 


1880 


3425 


85 


d i 


48" 


20'0" 


K* 


Vs" 


1880 


3950 


85 


w 


48" 


22'0" 


W 


h" 


2050 


2720 


59 




*48" 


22'0" 


w 


Vs" 


2050 


3715 


85 




48" 


22'0" 


H* 


Vs" 


2050 


4290 


85 




58" 


24'0" 


w 


X" 


2260 


3000 


59 




*48" 


24'0" 


w 


Vs" 


2260 


4000 


85 




48" 


24'0" 


H* 


X" 


2260 


4630 


85 




60" 


14'0" 


H* 


X' 


2050 


2430 


70 




*60" 


14'0" 


w 


Vs" 


2050 


3800 


103 




60" 


14'0" 


w 


X" 


2050 


4520 


120 




60" 


16'0" 


w 


X' 


2350 


2730 


70 




*60" 


16'0" 


%" 


Vs" 


2350 


4310 


103 




60" 


16'0" 


w 


X" 


2350 


5120 


120 




60" 


18'0" 


H" 


X' 


2640 


3030 


70 




*60" 


18'0" 


X* 


Vs" 


2640 


4815 


103 




60" 


18'0 # 


H* 


X' 


2640 


5720 


120 




60" 


20'0" 


w 


X" 


2940 


3330 


70 


K 


*60" 


20'0" 


%" 


Vs" 


2940 


5325 


103 


Q 


60" 


20'0" 


Vs" 


X' 


2940 


6320 


120 




60" 


22'0" 


H* 


X" 


3230 


3630 


70 




*60" 


22'0" 


%" 


Vs" 


3230 


5835 


103 




60" 


22'0" 


H* 


X' 


3230 


6925 


120 




*60" 


24'0" 


HT 


X" 


3525 


3930 


70 




*60" 


24'0" 


H" 


Vs" 


3525 


6345 


103 




60" 


24'0" 


H" 


X" 


3525 


7525 


120 




60" 


28'0" 


H* 


X' 


4100 


4530 


70 




60" 


28 '0" 


%r 


Vs" 


4100 


6850 


103 




60" 


28'0" 


w 


X" 


4100 


8125 


120 




60" 


30'0" 


%" 


X" 


4400 


4830 


70 



The purchaser is always sure of good work when he knows that the manufacturer 
habitually means to make a worthy product and has the experience, knowledge, 
skill and resources to do it. 
*Standard sizes carried in stock for prompt shipment. 

{29> 



LANCASTER X^klflfS IRON WORKS 



♦«= 



»♦ 



Pressure Tanks 



Diameter 


f 

Length 


Thickness 


Capacity 
in Gallons 


Weight 
Pounds 


Working 
Pressure 
F. S.=4 




Shell 


Heads 














Lbs. 


« f *60" 


30'0" 


H* 


H' 


4400 


7365 


103 


Q*\ 60" 


30'0" 


W 


W 


4400 


8725 


120 




72* 


8'0" 


H* 


H" 


1690 


2320 


53 




*72" 


8'0" 


%" 


Vs" 


1690 


3325 


86 




72" 


8'0" 


%" 


W 


1690 


3930 


101 




72" 


12'0" 


%' 


H' 


2540 


3030 


53 




*72" 


12'0* 


%" 


Vs" 


2540 


4340 


86 




72" 


12'0" 


%* 


%" 


2540 


5140 


101 




72" 


16'0" 


K" 


HT 


3385 


3690 


53 




*72" 


16'0 # 


%" 


Vs" 


3385 


5350 


86 




72" 


ie'o" 


H* 


H" 


3385 


6340 


101 


K 


72" 


18'0" 


H" 


H" 


3805 


4025 


53 


Q 


*72" 


18'0" 


X" 


Vs" 


3805 


5855 


86 




72" 


18'0" 


H* 


%" 


3805 


6940 


101 




72" 


24'0" 


H* 


H' 


5080 


5020 


53 




*72" 


24'0" 


%" 


Vs" 


5080 


7365 


86 




72" 


24'0" 


%" 


H* 


5080 


8730 


101 




72" 


30'0" 


W 


H" 


6345 


6015 


53 




*72" 


30'0" 


%" 


H' 


6345 


9050 


86 




72" 


30'0" 


H* 


H" 


6345 


10730 


101 




72" 


36'0" 


H* 


W 


7600 


7020 


53 




*72" 


36'0" 


H* 


H* 


7600 


10565 


86 




, 72" 


36'0" 


W 


H' 


7600 


12530 


101 




84" 


i8'o" 


W 


H" 


5180 


5685 


59 




*84" 


1S'0 # 


H* 


Vs" 


5180 


6975 


74 




84" 


18'0" 


H* 


%' 


5180 


8170 


86 




84" 


24'0" 


W 


X' 


6910 


7245 


59 


i 


*84" 


24'0" 


%* 


H" 


6910 


8700 


74 


Q 


84" 


24'0" 


%* 


%" 


6910 


10310 


86 




84" 


28'0" 


w 


H' 


8060 


8285 


59 




*84" 


28'0" 


H* 


Vs" 


8060 


10000 


74 




84" 


28'0" 


%" 


H* 


8060 


11860 


86 




84" 


30'0" 


H* 


H' 


8635 


8805 


59 



Lancaster's name has become synonymous with Tanks and Steel Plate Construc- 
tion. 

*Standard sizes carried in stock for prompt shipment. 

{30> 



LANCASTER TS£§££S IRON WORKS 



•♦+3 — — 




Pressure Tanks 




BM- 


Diameter 


Length 


Thickness 


Capacity 
in Gallons 


Weight 
Pounds 


Working 
Pressure 
F. S.=4 




Shell 


Heads 














Lbsl 




r *84" 


30'0" 


X' 


Vs" 


8635 


10400 


74 


Q 


84" 


30 '0" 


Vs" 


X" 


8635 


12340 


86 


84" 


36'o* 


X' 


X" 


10360 


10365 


59 


*84" 


36'0" 


X" 


Vs" 


10360 


12400 


74 




84" 


36'0" 


Vs" 


X" 


10360 


14720 


86 




96" 


16'0" 


M" 


X" 


6015 


6515 


52 




*96" 


i6'o" 


X' 


Vs" 


6015 


7515 


65 




96" 


16'0" 


Vs" 


X" 


6015 


9290 


76 




96" 


18'0" 


X" 


X" 


6770 


7130 


52 




*96" 


18'0" 


X" 


Vs" 


6770 


8150 


65 




96" 


18'0" 


Vs" 


X' 


6770 


10060 


76 




96" 


20'0" 


X" 


X" 


7520 


7750 


52 




*96" 


20'0" 


X" 


Vs" 


7520 


8850 


65 




96" 


20'0" 


Vs" 


X' 


7520 


10920 


76 




96" 


24'0" 


X" 


X" 


9020 


8985 


52 




*96" 


24'0" 


X" 


Vs" 


9020 


10200 


65 




96" 


24'0" 


Vs" 


X' 


9020 


12550 


76 




96" 


28 '0" 


X' 


X" 


10530 


10225 


52 


*96* 


28'0" 


X" 


Vs" 


10530 


11515 


65 


96" 


28'0" 


Vs" 


Y2" 


10530 


14140 


76 




96" 


30 '0" 


X' 


X' 


11280 


10845 


52 




*96" 


30'0" 


X" 


Vs" 


11280 


12140 


65 




96" 


30 '0" 


Vs" 


X' 


11280 


14895 


76 




96" 


32'0" 


X' 


X" 


12030 


11460 


52 




*96" 


32'0" 


X' 


Vs" 


12030 


12880 


65 




96" 


32'0" 


Vs" 


X" 


12030 


15790 


76 




96" 


36'0" 


X' 


%" 


13540 


12700 


52 




*96" 


36'0" 


X" 


Vs" 


13540 


14140 


65 




96" 


36'0" 


Vs" 


X' 


13540 


17320 


76 




96" 


40 '0" 


X' 


X" 


15040 


13465 


52 




*96" 


40'0" 


X" 


Vs" 


15040 


15540 


65 




96" 


40'0" 


Vs" 


X" 


15040 


19010 


76 


K f 108* 


20'0" 


X" 


X" 


9520 


8555 


48 


H 1 *108" 


20'0* 


X" Vs" 


9520 


10095 


60 



Lancaster knows how to combine good shop practice with sound engineering 
principles, and it can make a very clear estimate of the cost and the time necessary 
to complete a job. 
^Standard sizes carried in stock for prompt shipment. 

in} 



LANCASTER Tk^xM^E IRON WORKS 



•»« 




Pressure Tanks 




W+ 


1 




Thickness 






Working 


Diameter 


Length 




Capacity 

in Gallons 


Weight 
Pounds 


Pressure 








F. S.=4 






Shell 


Heads 






Lbs. 




108" 


20'0" 


w 


w 


9520 


12480 


69 




108" 


24'0" 


u* 


K* 


11400 


9840 


48 




*108" 


24'0" 


X* 


%" 


11400 


11585 


60 




108" 


24'0" 


%* 


W 


11400 


14275 


69 




108" 


28'0" 


H* 


w 


13300 


11125 


48 




*108" 


28'0" 


H» 


w 


13300 


13125 


60 




108" 


28'0" 


H* 


w 


13300 


16155 


59 


« \ 


108" 


32'0" 


H* 


w 


15200 


12405 


48 


H 


*108" 


32'0" 


%" 


w 


15200 


14615 


60 




108" 


32'0" 


%* 


w 


15200 


17955 


69 




108" 


36'0" 


K* 


M" 


17100 


13690 


59 




*108" 


36'0" 


M" 


W 


17100 


16130 


48 




108" 


36'0" 


w 


¥*" 


17100 


19795 


60 




108" 


40'0" 


K* 


H* 


19040 


14970 


69 




*108" 


40'0" 


w 


%" 


19040 


17610 


48 




108" 


40'0" 


%" 


W 


19040 


21580 


60 




120" 


20'0" 


w 


W 


11800 


10020 


69 




*120" 


20'0" 


H" 


H" 


11800 


11340 


48 




120" 


20'0" 


W 


l A ff 


11800 


14055 


43 




120" 


24'0" 


H* 


W 


14100 


11385 


53 




*120" 


24 / /a 


H* 


H* 


14100 


12965 


62 




120" 


24'0" 


H" 


¥2" 


14100 


16025 


43 




120" 


28'0" 


W 


W 


16450 


12770 


53 




*120" 


28'0" 


H* 


V*" 


16450 


14615 


62 


K 


120" 


28'0" 


H" 


¥2" 


16450 


18010 


43 


H 


120" 


32'0" 


W 


V%" 


18800 


14133 


53 




*120" 


32'0" 


%" 


w 


18800 


16245 


62 




120" 


32'0" 


H* 


¥2" 


18800 


19980 


43 




120" 


36'0" 


K* 


V%" 


21000 


15520 


53 




♦120" 


36'0" 


H* 


H* 


21000 


17930 


62 




120" 


36'0" 


Vs" 


¥2" 


21000 


22025 


43 




120" 


40'0" 


w 


Vs" 


23600 


16860 


53 




*120" 


40'0" 


w 


%" 


23600 


19560 


62 




120" 


40'0" 


H" 


¥2" 


23600 


24000 


43 



Lancaster Quality has its source in the organization which designs and fabricates 

the products. 
^Standard sizes carried in stock for prompt shipment. 

{32} 



■♦<*= 



LANCASTER T^IfltS 



IRON WORKS 



a** 





_,_^ 






T^ 






a 






*-• 






5v 

* * 


'c* 


1 


- — X' — 





^ GAUCrC TAPS/ 



A 


B 


c 


24* DIA. 


25*" 


1 ■ D/A . 


30" ■• 


»j; 


1 


3G" - 


2»V 


i"- 









/ 
/ 

I 
I 

"c v ; 


1 
:< 

. 1 


+■ 








M 






A 


B 


c 






24" DIA. 


»5i" 


1" DIA. 






30 w . 


»4' 


1 " » 
















A 


B 


c 


36 "PI A. 


15 i" 


if DIA. 


42" - 


*k\ 


if ■■ 


4d" - 


z^ 


£■ ■ 




-5TD. tl"x I5"MANH0LE 



A 

5' DIA. 


C 
3" DIA. 


D 
I" DIA 


6' " 


4" ■ 




7* - 


5" ■ 


t" * 


3' " 


C » 


)" « 


S>' ' 


6' " 


i ' - 


JO" * 


6" ■ 


i - ■ 



Diagram showing siz,e and location of Openings in 
L. I. W. Standard Pressure Tanks 



{ 33 > 



LANCASTER TMklf US IRON WORKS 
•»»3 £++• 



Information About Our Standard Pressure Tanks 

We have shown most sizes of tanks in three thicknesses of shell. 

The first or lightest construction is for storage purposes where 
not more than 25 to 50 lbs. pressure is required. 

The intermediate specifications (marked with a star *) are our 
standard pressure tanks and in the majority of sizes are good for 
at least 85 lbs. working pressure on a Factor of Safety of Four (4). 

The third set of specifications cover tanks of heavier construc- 
tion, both for greater pressures and for longer service as in acid 
storage or where the water is particularly hard on the metal. 

We also build larger and heavier tanks to work under very 
high pressures or extreme conditions. 

On page 33 you will note a diagram showing size and 
location of openings in Standard Pressure Tanks. These are 
really standard pneumatic tank tappings. Our prices include 
these standard openings. Where special openings are required, 
you can figure $1.00 an inch of diameter. 

All tanks up to and including 48" in diameter have one head 
backed in and no manhole unless specially ordered. 

All tanks 60" in diameter and larger have both heads convex, 
and a standard 11" x 15" boiler manhole in one head. 

The working capacity of a pressure tank is about two-thirds of 
its rated capacity. All pressure tanks are tested to a point 25% 
above the desired working pressure. 

All tanks have single riveted girth seams, longitudinal seams 
are single, double or triple riveted, except where extra high work- 
ing pressure is used and then special riveting is used as required. 
Button head steel boiler rivets used. 

Tanks are built of class "A" steel, except in the case of very 
high working pressures or where heat is to be applied, and special 
quality steel is necessary. 

All the heads are dished to a spherical radius equal to the diam- 
eter of the tank and make a wonderful appearance. They have 
been dished by the spinning method as against being pressed. 

All openings plugged for shipment using C. I. Pipe Plugs. 

Tanks over 5' in diameter loaded with overhead cranes, blocked 
and rodded to car to prevent damage in transit. 

The largest diameter tank that can be shipped completely made 
up on one car is approximately 10'6" diameter by 40' long. 

<34> 



LANCASTER l*SE&gKJ IRON WORKS 



=£+♦• 



Useful Information 

TO FIND: 

The circumference of a circle multiply diameter by 3.1416. 
The diameter of a circle multiply circumference by .31831. 
The area of a circle multiply square of diameter by .7854. 
Doubling the diameter of a circle increases its area four times. 
The side of an equal square multiply diameter by .8862. 

A gallon of water (U. S. Standard) weighs 8}4 lbs. and contains 231 cubic 
inches. 

A cubic foot of water contains 7.48 gallons, 1728 cubic inches, and weighs 
62.4 lbs. 

Surface of sphere = circumference x diameter. 

Surface of sphere ■■ diameter 2 x 3.1416. 

Surface of sphere = circumference 2 x .3183. 

Volume of sphere = surface x }i diameter. 

Volume of sphere = diameter 3 x .5236. 

Volume of sphere = radius 3 x 4.1888. 

Volume of sphere = circumference 3 x .016887. 

To find the pressure in pounds per square inch of a column of water multiply 
the height of the column in feet by .434. 

Steam rising from water at its boiling point (212 degrees) has a pressure equal 
to the atmosphere (14.7 lbs. to the square inch). 

A standard horse power: The evaporation of 30 lbs. of water per hour from a 
feed water temperature of 100 degrees F. into steam at 70 lbs. gauge pressure. 
(Equivalent to 34}/^ lbs. from and at 212 degrees Fahr.) 



TO FIND THE CAPACITY OF A TANK IN GALLONS 

To find the capacity of any style tank: determine its contents in cu. inches 
and multiply by .004329 and the result will be in U. S. gallons. 

For figuring capacity of cylindrical tanks having flat heads, square the dia- 
meter (inches), multiply by the length (inches) and multiply by .0034; the 
result will be in U. S. gallons. 

Capacity in gallons of hemispherical tank bottom = 15.665 x r 3 . 

Area in square feet of hemispherical tank bottom = 1,57 x d 2 . 



i 35) 



LANCASTER TSeISSSSS IRON WORKS 



•Hit 



=£♦♦• 



Useful Information — Continued 

TO DETERMINE THE THICKNESS OF BOILER SHELL: 
_ P x R x F. S. 
T. S. x E 

P = Maximum allowable working pressure in pounds per square inch. 
T. S. = Tensile strength of shell plates, in pounds per square inch of cross 
section. 
E = Efficiency of longitudinal joint or ligament between tubes holes, 

whichever is the least. 
R = Radius = one half 04) the inside diameter of the outside course of 
the shell or drum. 
F. S. = Factor of Safety (generally considered to be 5). 
T = Minimum thickness of shell plates in inches. 

TO DETERMINE THE SHELL THICKNESS OF STAND PIPES, STOR- 
AGE TANKS, ETC. 

_ 2.6xHxD 

T = 

SxE 

H = Distance down from water surface. 
D = Diameter of tank. 

S = Unit stress — assumed as 12,000 lbs. to 15,000 lbs. per square inch. 

E = Efficiency, which depends on the design of the vertical joints, and 
should vary from 65% to 95%. 

CONCRETE WALLS OR PIERS 
The proper portion of ingredients required for supports for tanks is : 

1 Cement, 2 Sand, 5 Stone 
The ingredients required for 1 cubic yard of rammed concrete using stone 
2 Yl' and under are: 

Cement 1.26 bbls. 
Sand .48 cu. yd. 

Stone .96 cu. yd. 
1 cu. yd. Sand = 1.41 Tons 
1 cu. yd. Stone = 1.2 Tons 
Care should be taken that concrete in supporting walls or piers is thoroughly 
set and hardened before placing loads on same. 

Liquid Measure — United States Only 



Cubic Inch 


Pints 


Quarts 


Gallons 


Barrels 


Hogshead 


28.875 
57.75 
231. 
7276.5 
14553.0 


1. 

2. 

8. 
252. 
504. 


0.5 

1. 

4. 
126. 
252. 


0.125 

0.25 

1. 

31.5 

63. 


0.003968 

0.007937 

0.031746 

1. 

2. 


0.5 
1. 



The British Imperial gallon = 1.20032 U. S. gallons. 

The United States standard unit for liquid measure is the gallon — 231 cu. 
in. = 8.33888 pounds, avoirdupois, of distilled water at 62° Fahr. 

The English standard is the Imperial gallon = 277.2738 cu. in. = 10 pounds, 
avoirdupois, of distilled water at 62° Fahr. 



LANCASTER 



IRON WORKS 



•♦♦a= 



a?**- 



Weights of Oils and Other Liquids 

As most storage tanks contain oils, water or other well-known 
liquids, we are appending a table of needed information covering 
the general line of liquids. 



Table of Weights 





Average 
Specific 
Gravity 


Lbs. in 
1 Gal. 


Lbs. in. 
1 Cu. Ft 


Alcohol 90% 


.8228 


6.85 


51.43 


Alcohol 95% 


.8089 


6.74 


50.56 


Asphaltum 


1.4 


11.68 


87.3 


Castor Oil 


.9639 


8.03 


60.24 


Cotton Seed Oil 


.9302 


7.75 


58.14 


Creosote Oil 


1.07 


8.94 


66.8 


Fish Oil 


.9205 


7.67 


57.53 


Gasoline 


.6511 


5.42 


40.69 


Kerosene Oil 


.8000 


6.66 


50.00 


Lard Oil 


.9175 


7.64 


57.34 


Linseed Oil, boiled 


.9411 


7.84 


58.81 


Linseed Oil, raw 


.9299 


7.75 


58.12 


Molasses (crude) 


1.458 


12.17 


91.00 


Muriatic Acid (HC1) 


1.201 


10.03 


75.00 


Naphtha 


.717 


6.00 


44.88 


Neatsfoot Oil 


.9142 


7.62 


57.14 


Nitric Acid (HNO3) 91% 


1.50 


12.57 


94.00 


Petroleum (crude) 


.88 


7.36 


55.00 


Petroleum (refined) 


.81 


6.69 


50.00 


Pitch 


1.07 to 1.15 


9.23 


69.00 


Snow (fresh fallen) 


.125 


1.07 


8.00 


Sperm Oil 


.8815 


7.34 


55.09 


Sulphuric Acid (H2SO4) 87% 


1.80 


14.98 


112.00 


Tar 


1.2 


10.03 


75.00 


Water 


1.000 


8.33 


62.50 



<S7> 



LANCASTER T^klSIfS IRON WORKS 
Steel Plate Extras 

Rectangular plates, tank steel H" thick and over on thinnest edge 100 inches 
wide and under, down to, but not including, 6 inches wide, are Base. 

All prices based on carloads. 

Allowable overweight, for rectangular plates, whether plates are ordered to 
gauge or weight, to be governed by the Standard Specifications of the Associa- 
tion of American Steel Manufacturers. 

All sketches, including circles, are invoiced at actual weight and are not sub- 
ject to weight tolerances applying to rectangular plates. 

Width Extras — All Plates Rectangular or Otherwise 

One-quarter inch thick and heavier, but not less than 11 pounds per square 
foot, if ordered to weight. 

Over 100 to and including 110 inches 05c 

Over 110 to and including 115 inches 10c 

Over 115 to and including 120 inches 15c 

Over 120 to and including 125 inches 25c 

Over 125 to and including 130 inches 50c 

Over 130 to and including 140 inches 75c 

Over 140 to and including 155 inches 1.00c 

Over 155 to and including 170 inches . 1.25c 

Over 170 to and including 185 inches 1.50c 

Over 185 to and including 195 inches 2.00c 

Plates less than J^-inch or lighter than 1 1 pounds per square foot. 

Over 72 to and including 84 inches 10c 

Over 84 to and including 96 inches 20c 

Over 96 to and including 100 inches 30c 

Gauge Extras 

Gauges lighter than 34 inch and including % inch on thin edge up to 72" 

wide inclusive . . 20c 

Gauges lighter than % inch to and including No. 7 and No. 8 . . ,30c 

Gauges lighter than No. 8 to and including No. 9 and No. 10 40c 

Gauges lighter than No. 10 to and including No. 11 and No. 12 50c 

Gauges lighter than No. 12 to and including No. 13 and No. 14 60c 

Quality Extras 

Pressing steel 10c 

Flange steel (boiler grade) ,15c 

Ordinary firebox steel .20c 

Stillbottom steel ,30c 

Locomotive firebox steel 50c 

Marine steel 1.50c 

Hull materials subject to U. S. Navy Dept. specifications for medium or 

soft steel 10c 

High tensile hull steel subject to U. S. navy department or equivalent 

specifications 1,00c 

(38) 



LANCASTER TMklfUS IRON WORKS 



Steel Plate Extras 

Quality Extras — Continued 

Boiler steel subject to U. S. navy department specifications, classes A-B. . 1 .50c 
Hull plates to hull specifications, required to stand cold flanging, take extra for 
flange steel. 

INSPECTION 

Mill inspection No extra 

Charges for other inspection, such as Lloyd's or American bureau of shipping, 
will be made by inspection bureau direct to buyer. 

CUTTING— LENGTH OR DIAMETER 

All Plates, Rectangular or Otherwise 

Three feet and over up to published limit of length, but not over 80 feet . No extra 

Under 3 feet to 2 feet inclusive 25c 

Under 2 feet to 1 foot inclusive 50c 

Under 1 foot 1.55c 

Over 80 feet to 100 feet inclusive 10c 

Over 100 feet add .25c plus .05c for every additional 2 feet or fraction thereof. 

Regular Sketches 

With not more than four straight cuts. 
(Including straight taper plates) 
Additional extra 20c 

Irregular Sketches 

With not more than four straight cuts. 
(Sketches cannot be sheared with re-entrant angles) 
Additional extra 50c 

Circles 

Additional extra ■ -50c 

Half circles take circle extras. 

Sketches sheared to a radius take circle extras. 

Special 

Torch cutting, 2j^c per square inch. 

Sketches or circles over 100 inches in width or diameter take width extras in 
addition to sketch or circle extras. 

All sketches, regular, irregular, circular, semicircular or special with greatest 
dimension under 3 feet, take extras for cutting to length in addition to sketch 
or circle extra. 

4 39} 



■♦«= 



LANCASTER Toflf IIS 



IRON WORKS 



=&f*- 



Weights of Steel Sheets and Plates 

Estimated Weight by Standard Gauges 





Approximate Thickness 




Weight per Square Foot 






in Inches 








in Pounds 






No. of 


U. S. 


Stubb's 


Ameri- 














Gauge 


Standard 
adopted by 


orBirm- 
ingham 


can or 
Brown 


U. S. 


Mills 


Birmingham 


American or 
Brown & 

Shame's 


Thickness 


U. S. Gov't. 


Wire 


& 


Standard 


Standard 


Wire Gauge 


of 

Sheet 


July 1, 1893 


Gauge 


Sh'rpe's 














Frac- 
tions 


Deci- 
mals 


Deci- 
mals 


Deci- 
mals 


Steel 


Steel 


Steel 


Iron 


Steel 


Iron 


7-0's 


H 


.5 






20.00 


20.4 










6-0's 


X %2 


.468 






18.75 


19.125 










7-0's 


Vie 


.437 






17.50 


17.85 










0000 


X %2 


.406 


!454 


Ad' 


16.25 


16.575 


18^46 


IS! 22 


is! 77 


is! 40 


000 


% 


.375 


.425 


.409 


15. 


15.30 


17.28 


17.05 


16,71 


16.38 


00 


l H* 


.343 


.38 


.364 


13.75 


14.025 


15.45 


15,25 


14.88 


14.59 





Me 


.312 


.34 


.324 


12.50 


12.75 


13.82 


13.64 


13,26 


13,00 


1 


%2 


.281 


.30 


.289 


11.25 


11.475 


12.20 


12.04 


11.80 


11.57 


2 


l %* 


.265 


.284 


.257 


10.625 


10.8375 


11.55 


11.40 


10.51 


10.30 


3 


H 


.25 


.259 


.229 


10. 


10.2 


10.53 


10.39 


9.36 


9.18 


4 


X %4 


.234 


.238 


.204 


9.375 


9.5625 


9.68 


9.55 


8.34 


8.17 


5 


VZ2 


.218 


.22 


.181 


8.75 


8.925 


8.95 


8.83 


7.42 


7.28 


6 


l H4 


.203 


.203 


.162 


8.125 


8.2875 


8.25 


8.15 


6.61 


6.48 


7 


M« 


.187 


.18 


.144 


7.5 


7.65 


7.32 


7.22 


5.89 


5.77 


8 


l f&4 


.171 


.165 


.128 


6.875 


7.0125 


6.71 


6.62 


5.24 


5.14 


9 


%2 


.156 


.148 


.114 


6.25 


6.375 


6.02 


5.94 


4.67 


4.58 


10 


%4 


.140 


.134 


.101 


5.625 


5.7375 


5.45 


5.38 


4.16 


4.08 


11 


Vs 


.125 


.12 


.09 


5. 


5.1 


4.88 


4.82 


3.70 


3.63 


12 


%4 


.109 


.109 


.08 


4.375 


4.625 


4.43 


4.37 


3.30 


3.23 


13 


%% 


.093 


.005 


.072 


3.75 


3.825 


3.86 


3.81 


2.94 


2.88 


14 


Ha 


.078 


.083 


.064 


3.125 


3.1875 


3.37 


3.33 


2.62 


2.56 


15 


H*B 


.070 


.072 


.057 


2.8125 


2.86875 


2,93 


2.89 


2.33 


2.28 


16 


He 


.062 


.065 


.05 


2.5 


2.55 


2.64 


2.61 


2.07 


2.03 


17 


%oo 


.056 


.058 


.045 


2.25 


2.295 


2.36 


2.33 


1.85 


1.81 


18 


Ho 


.05 


.049 


.04 


2. 


2.04 


1.99 


1.97 


1.64 


1.61 


19 


Meo 


.043 


.042 


.035 


1.75 


1.785 


1.71 


1.69 


1.46 


1.44 


20 


Ho 


.037 


.035 


.032 


1.50 


1.53 


1.42 


1.40 


1.31 


1.28 


21 


*\i20 


.034 


.032 


.028 


1.375 


1.4025 


1.30 


1.28 


1.16 


1,14 


22 


Ma 


.031 


,028 


.025 


1.25 


1.275 


1.14 


1.12 


1.03 


1,01 


23 


K«« 


.028 


.025 


.022 


1.125 


1.1475 


1.02 


1.00 


.922 


.904 


24 


Ho 


.025 


.022 


.020 


1. 


1.02 


.895 


.883 


.82 


.804 


25 


/$2o 


.021 


.02 


.017 


.875 


.8925 


.813 


.803 


.73 


.716 


26 


Keo 


.018 


.018 


.015 


.75 


.765 


.732 


.732 


.649 


.636 


27 


xx A±o 


.017 


.016 


.014 


.6875 


.70125 


.651 


.642 


.579 


.568 


28 


Ha 


.015 


.014 


.012 


.625 


.6375 


.569 


.562 


.514 


.504 


29 


K40 


.014 


.013 


.011 


. 5625 


.57375 






.461 


.452 
.46 


30 


Ho 


.012 


.012 


.01 


.5 


.51 






.408 


31 


Yoao 


.010 


.01 


.008 


.4375 


.44625 






.363 


,356 


32 


i^80 


.010 


.009 


.008 


.4062 


.414375 






.326 


!320 
.284 
.252 


33 


%20 


.009 


.008 


.007 


.375 


.3825 






.29 


34 


^280 


.008 


.007 


.006 


.3437 


.350625 






.257 


35 


^40 


.007 


.005 


.005 


.3125 


.31885 






.228 


.224 


36 


H 2 8 


.007 


.004 




.2812 


. 286875 










37 


X1 A^0 


.006 






.2656 


.2709375 










38 


Hoo 


.006 






.25 


.255 











The U. S. Standard Gauge is the one commonly used in the United States. 

Commercial Practice permits of a tonnage weight variations of 2 Y 2 % either way on gauges 17 to 
30, inclusive, 5% either way on gauges No. 16 to No. 8. 



■{40} 



•♦*= 



LANCASTER T^klf US IRON WORKS 



=«*• 





* 


in 


* 


o 
co 


00 


to 
© 


© 


s 


j; 


© 


c- 


tO 
CO 


CM 


CM 


■§ 


1 


t» 


8 


V3 


9 


"1 


CM 






£~ 


s 


CM 
CM 


1 

CM 


CO 


© 

m 

CO 


s 

9 


! 


i 


00 

3 


9 


CO 

CM 

tO 


CO 
tO 


oo 


3 




CM 

m 

00 


K» M »» 11 f* 

S © S 8 © 


cc 


© 


to 

o 


© 


© 

o 


© 


g 


fO 


2 


m 


to 


cri 


© 


a 


CM 


ch 

CM 


CM 


»' <o t>. » " 

CM CM CM C« 








CM 


in 
CM 


00 

in 

CM 


§ 


1- 


00 
CO 


1 




tO 


© 

m 


CM 

3 


s 


I 


5 




CO 


1 i I i 




4S 


m 


~ 


s 


o 


« 


CO 

CM 


9 


m 




m 

CO 


© 
© 


* 


so 

CM 


CM 

• 


to 

m 


r- 


S S 2 








i 


©■ 

cm 


«o 

CM 


i 

CM 


© 

CM 

ro 


© 

CO 


? 


CM 

m 


I 


* 

5 


m 


s 


CO 


© 

s 


s 


CO 


M ♦ M 

S co © 






i» 


© 

o 


tO 

ro 


s 


1 


oo 


LO 


CM 


§ 


CM 


S 


« 


§ 


CO 


s 


8 




in en 










. o 


r^ 
m 


8 


in 

CO 
CM 


g 


* 
fl 


CO 

m 

CO 


CM 

© 

CO 


CM 

9 


* 


© 


© 


i 


co 

CM 


i 


§ 


; 


cS 5 








*; o 


3 


o 


5 


CM 

CO 


CM 
CM 


CM 

to 


co 
© 


ro 


3 


CO 

<•* 


t 


© 


I 


I 


CM 


■o 


© 












Ov 


co 


* 

CM 
CM 


5 


s 

CM 


to 

CO 
CO 


CO 


^ 


oo 

3 


1 


CO 

CM 




m 


m 

2 


B 

o 


a 


5r 










.S* 


m 


3 


© 


CO 


tO 

CM 


© 


CM 

CO 


m 

oo 


j( 


© 


m 


■ 
© 


m 


in 

© 


00 


















£ • 


cm 


r: 


« 


oo 


cS 


© 


m 
m 
ro 


8 

CO 


to 
5 


3 
1- 


© 


CM 

ro 

id 


00 
tO 

m 


o 
o 


© 

3 


m 
tO 
















m 


CO 





CO 

to 


© 
CO 


tO 

© 


t£ 


00 


© 


© 
O 


c^ 


CO 

© 


1 


m 


CM 

© 


















£ w 


"1- 
ro 


CO 

o 


c 




© 
tO 


CO 


to 

CO 
CO 


© 
CO 


CO 
O 


CO 


* 


© 
in 


CO 
CO 


CM 

iff 


© 
tO 
















c *o 


^ 




in 


1- 

m 


CO 


CO 


© 




o 


© 

CO 


© 
© 


CO 

co 


tO 


4 




















£« 


2 


00 
m 


o 

© 






tO 
oo 




© 

• 
CO 


CC 


CO 


3 


«o 


oo 
© 


o 




















© 


10 


CO 

m 


rf 


CO 


© 
CO 




1- 


to 

© 


CO 

© 


© 


CO 

oo 


m 




















J! 

2 

JS 

s 


£°° 


© 


at 

* 


© 


© 
O 


© 
CO 


© 
tO 


© 
© 


© 


© 


co 

00 
CO 


co 


oo 


oc 




















.5 *° 


a 


to 
o 


cc 
to 


tO 

ro 

to 
© 




4 


CN 

m 

© 
oo 


oo 
© 

CO 


o 

O 
c- 


to 
*r 

CO 


CM 

© 

CO 


oo 
© 


























© 


© 

c 






CO 

to 


CM 

oo 


o 

o 


cc 


to 

CO 


f 
























a •** 


o 


o 
co 


s 


CO 


© 

8 


m 

CO 


to 

CM 


co 

oo 


f- 


© 

"3- 
co 


tO 

tO 

CO 
























c «o 


in 


to 


cc 


oo 


© 


© 
oo 




CO 


t 


© 




























«« 




s 




o 


© 


00 


CO 

m 

CM 


tO 

CM 


a 

CN 


o 

CO 




























r- 


cm" 


<J- 


© 




© 




tO 

oo 


c 






























a*° 


00 


CM 


4 

c 


I/- 


a 


c 


**" 


tO 

i 


B 
to 




























ct© 


a 

cm 


8 




o 

© 


w 


*T 




co 
































d^ 


CM 

00 


CM 

O 


c- 




4 
O 


l/^ 

oo 


m 
1 


to 
































00 


m 







o 


« 


o 


































4i *° 


*J- 


CO 


£ 


© 

c<- 


a 


oc 

tO 


oc 
































c«s 


co 


tO 


§ 


0C 


i/- 

i 


cc 




































d * 


to 


3 


| 




t 
p 


^ 




































00 


§ 




W 


o 

tO 






































«S* 


o\ 


Jj 


g 


2 


P 




































.SvO 


to 




9 


3 








































«J ro 


CM 
m 




cc 


s 






































£<*> 


"T 

5 


o 
to 


tC 








































i* 




lO 












































^ CM 


ro 


o 










































£ CM 


cm 

© 

CM 














































d 




c 




c 




c 




| 




c 




c 




c 


i s 




M 


CM 


to 

CM 


m 


to 

(V 


T 


to 


u- 


vc 

LT 


tfl 


t£ 


r- 


< 


at 




> 

3 O 


t£ 
I o 


> 

t c 


II 
. c 


► 


« 


> 





on 



Areas and Circumferences of Circles 



Diam. 


Area 


Circum. 


Diam. 


Area 


Circum. 


Diam. 


Area 


Circum. 


H* 


.00019 


. 04909 


2% 


4.4301 


7.4613 


TVs 


48.707 


24.740 


H2 


.00077 


.09818 


He 


4 . 6664 


7.6576 


8. 


50.265 


25.133 


U* 


.00173 


.14726 


H 


4.9087 


7.8540 


Vs 


51.849 


25.525 


He 


.00307 


.19635 


He 


5.1572 


8.0503 


u 


53.456 


25.918 


Ha 


.00479 


. 24544 


Vs 


5.4119 


8.2467 


Vs 


55.088 


26.311 


Hi 


.00690 


.29452 


5.6727 


8.4430 


H 


56.745 


26.704 


Ha 


.00939 


.34361 


X 


5.9396 


8.6394 


Vs 


58.426 


27.096 




.01227 


.39270 


x He 


6.2126 


8.8357 


% 


60.132 


27.489 


.01917 


.49087 


Vs 


6.4918 


9.0321 


H 


61.862 


27.882 


M« 


.02761 


.58905 


i ki 


6.7771 


9.2284 


9. 


63.617 


28.274 


Hi 


.03758 


.68722 


3. 


7.0686 


9.4248 


H 


65.397 


28.667 


H 


.04909 


.78540 


He 


7.3662 


9.6211 


X 


67.201 


29.060 


Hi 


.06213 


.88357 


Vs 


7.6699 


9.8175 


Vs 


69.029 


29.452 


He 


.07670 


.98175 


He 


7.9798 


10.014 


¥2 


70.882 


29.845 


11 As2 


,09281 


1.0799 


X 


8.2958 


10.210 


Vs 


72.760 


30.238 


H 


,11045 


1.1781 


He 


8.6179 


10.407 


% 


74.662 


30.631 


l Hi 


.12962 


1,2763 


He 


8.9462 


10.603 


Vs 


76.589 


31.023 


He 


.15033 


1.3744 


9.2806 


10.799 


10. 


78.540 


31.416 


l Hi 


.17257 


1,4726 


H 


9.6211 


10.996 


H 


80.516 


31.809 


n 


.19635 


1.5708 


He 


9.9678 


11.192 


X 


82.516 


32.201 


17 A2 


.22166 


1 . 6690 


Vs 


10.321 


11.388 


% 


84.541 


32.594 


He 


.24850 


1.7671 


ll Xe 


10.680 


11.585 


V2 


86 . 590 


32.987 


l Hi 


.27688 


1.8653 


¥> 


11.045 


11.781 


Vs 


88.664 


33.379 


% 


.30680 


1.9635 


x He 


11.416 


11.977 


% 


90.763 


33.772 


2 H2 


.33824 


2.0617 


Vs 


11.793 


12.174 


Vs 


92.886 


34.165 


l H« 


.37122 


2.1598 


l H% 


12.177 


12.370 


11. 


95.033 


34.558 


2 %2 


.40574 


2.2580 


4. 


12.566 


12.566 


H 


97.205 


34.950 


x 


.44179 


2.3562 


He 


12.962 


12.763 


X 


99.402 


35 . 343 


2 %2 


.47937 


2.4544 


He 


13,364 


12.959 


Vs 


101.62 


35.736 


X H* 


.51849 


2.5525 


13.772 


13.155 


M 


103.87 


36.128 


2 %2 


.55914 


2.6507 


H 


14.186 


13.352 


H 


106.14 


36.521 


Vs 


.60132 


2 . 7489 


He 


14.607 


13.548 


X 


108.43 


36.914 


2 %2 


.64504 


2.8471 


& 


15.033 


13 . 744 


Vs 


110.75 


37.306 


1 He 


.69029 


2.9452 


15.466 


13.941 


12. 


113.10 


37.699 


A 2 


.73708 


3.0434 


l A 


15.904 


14.137 


Vs 


115.47 


38.092 


1. 


.7854 


3 . 1416 


He 


16.349 


14.334 


X 


117.86 


38.485 


Hi 


.8352 


3.2397 


H 


16.800 


14.530 


Vs 


120.28 


38.877 


He 


.8866 


3.3379 


l He 


17.257 


14.726 


Yi 


122.72 


39.270 


Hi 


.9396 


3.4361 


% 


17.721 


14.923 


Vs 


125.19 


39.663 


v% 


.9940 


3.5343 


13 Ae 


18.190 


15.119 


X 


127.68 


40.055 


%2 


1,0500 


3.6324 


Vs 


18.665 


15.315 


, y * 


130.19 


40.448 


He 


1.1075 


3.7306 


X H% 


19.147 


15.512 


13. 


132 . 73 


40.841 


A 2 


1.1666 


3.8288 


5. 


19.635 


15.708 


Vs 


135.30 


41.233 


X 


1,2272 


3.9270 


Me 


20.129 


15.904 


X 


137.89 


41.626 


%2 


1.2893 


4.0251 


H 


20.629 


16.101 


Vs 


140.50 


42.019 


Vie 


1.3530 


4.1233 


He 


21.135 


16.297 


M 


143.14 


42.412 


l Hi 


1.4182 


4.2215 


H 


21.648 


16.493 


Vs 


145.80 


42 . 804 


Vs 


1 . 4849 


4.3197 


He 


22 . 166 


16.690 


X 


148.49 


43.197 


l Hi 


1.5531 


4.4178 


Vs 


22.691 


16.886 


Vs 


151.20 


43 . 590 


He 


1.6230 


4.5160 


He 


23.221 


17.082 


14. 


153.94 


43.982 


l Hi 


1.6943 


4.6142 


H 


23.758 


17.279 


Vs 


156.70 


44.375 


H 


1 . 7671 


4.7124 


He 


24.301 


17.475 


X 


159.48 


44.768 


X1 /s2 


1.8415 


4.8105 


Vs 


24.850 


17.671 


Vs 


162.30 


45.160 


He 


1.9175 


4.9087 


x He 


25.406 


17.868 


V2 


165.13 


45.553 


X %2 


1.9949 


5.0070 


% 


25.967 


18.064 


Vs 


167.99 


45.946 


Vs 


2.0739 


5.1051 


x He 


26.535 


18.261 


X 


170.87 


46.338 


2 Vz2 


2.1545 


5.2033 


Vs 


27.109 


18.457 


Vs 


173.78 


46.731 


x He 


2.2365 


5.3014 


1 He 


27.688 


18.653 


15. 


176.71 


47.124 


2 %2 


2.3201 


5.3996 


6. 


28.274 


18.850 


H 


179.67 


47.517 


X 


2.4053 


5.4978 


Vs 


29.465 


19.242 


X 


182.65 


47.909 


2 H2 


2.4919 


5.5960 


X 


30.680 


19.635 


Vs 


185.66 


48.302 


1 He 


2.5802 


5 . 6941 


Vs 


31.919 


20.028 


H 


188.69 


48.695 


2 %2 


2.6700 


5.7923 


H 


33.183 


20.420 


Vs 


191.75 


49.087 


Vs 


2.7612 


5.8905 


H 


34.472 


20.813 


X 


194.83 


49 . 480 


2 %2 


2.8540 


5.9887 


H 


35.785 


21.206 


Vs 


197.93 


49,873 


l Me 


2.9483 


6.0868 


% 


37.122 


21.598 


16. 


201.06 


50.265 


S A2 


3.0442 


6.1850 


7. 


38.485 


21.991 


H 


204.22 


50.658 


2. 


3.1416 


6r.2832 


Vs 


39.871 


22.384 


U 


207.39 


51.051 


He 


3.3410 


6.4795 


X 


41.282 


22.776 


Vs 


210.60 


51.444 


Vs 


3.5466 


6.6759 


Vs 


42.718 


23.169 


V2 


213.82 


51.836 


He 


3 . 7583 


6.8722 


H 


44.179 


23.562 


Vs 


217.08 


52.229 


X 


3.9761 


7.0686 


% 


45 . 664 


23.955 


X 
Vs 


220.35 


52.622 


He 


4.2000 


7.2649 


% 


47.173 


24.347 


223.65 


53.014 



{42} 



Areas and Circumferences of Circles 



Diam. 


Area 


Circum. 


Diam. 


Area 


Circum. 


Diam. 


Area 


Circum. 


17. 


226.98 


53.407 


26. 


530.93 


81 . 681 


35. 


962.11 


109.956 


H 


230.33 


53.800 


H 


536.05 


82.074 


Vs 


969.00 


110.348 


H 


233.71 


54.192 


X 


541.19 


82.467 


X 


975.91 


110.741 


Vs 


237.10 


54.585 


% 


546.35 


82.860 


Vs 


982.84 


111.134 


y% 


240.53 


54.978 


H 


551.55 


83.252 


V2 


989.80 


111.527 


H 


243.98 


55.371 


H 


556.76 


83 . 645 


Vs 


996.78 


111.919 


X 


247.45 


55.763 


H 


562.00 


84.038 


% 


1003.8 


112.312 


H 


250.95 


56.156 


Vs 


567.27 


84.430 


Vs 


1010.8 


112.705 


18. 


254.47 


56.549 


27. 


572.56 


84.823 


36. 


1017.9 


113.097 


Vs 


258.02 


56.941 


H 


577.87 


85.216 


Vs 


1025.0 


113.490 


H 


261.59 


57.334 


x 


583.21 


85.608 


k 


1032.1 


113.883 


Vs 


265.18 


57.727 


h 


588.57 


86.001 


Vs 


1039.2 


114.275 


H 


268.80 


58.119 


H 


593.96 


86.394 


H 


1046.3 


114.668 


% 


272.45 


58.512 


% 


599.37 


86.786 


% 


1053.5 


115.061 


% 


276.12 


58.905 


H 


604.81 


87.179 


% 


1060.7 


115.454 


Vs 


279.81 


59.298 


% 


610.27 


87.572 


Vs 


1068.0 


115.846 


19. 


283 . 53 


59.690 


28. 


615.75 


87.965 


37. 


1075.2 


116.239 


Vs 


287.27 


60 . 083 


% 


621.26 


88.357 


Vs 


1082.5 


116.632 


k 


291.04 


60.476 


k 


626.80 


88.750 


X 


1089.8 


117.024 


H 


294.83 


60.868 


^ 


632.36 


89.143 


Vs 


1097.1 


117.417 


% 


298.65 


61.261 


H 


637.94 


89.535 


H 


1104.5 


117.810 


Vs 


302.49 


61 . 654_ 


Vs 


643 . 55 


89.928 


Vs 


1111.8 


118.202 


u* 


306.35 


62.046 


H 


649.18 


90.321 


% 


1119.2 


118.596 


% 


310.24 


62.439 


% 


654.84 


90.713 


Vs 


1126.7 


118.988 


20. 


314.16 


62.832 


29. 


660.52 


91.106 


38. 


1134.1 


119.381 


H 


318.10 


63.225 


a 


666 . 23 


91.499 


Vs 


1141.6 


119.773 


H 


322.06 


63.617 


H 


671.96 


91.892 


X 


1149.1 


120.166 


§ 


326.05 


64.010 


Vs 


677.71 


92 . 284 


% 


1156.6 


120.559 


330.06 


64.403 


H 


683.49 


92.677 


H 


1164.2 


120.951 


334.10 


64.795.* 


% 


689.30 


93.070 


H 


1171.7 


121.344 


S 


338.16 


65 . 188 


% 


695.13 


93.462 


% 


1179.3 


121.737 


S 


342.25 


65.581 


Vs 


700.98 


93.855 


Vs 


1186.9 


122.129 


21. 


346.36 


65.973 


30. 


706.86 


94 . 248 


39. 


1194.6 


122.522 


M 


350.50 


66.366 


Vs 


712.76 


94.640 


H 


1202.3 


122.915 


H 


354.66 


66 . 759 


H 


718.69 


95.033 


X 


1210.0 


123.308 


N 


358.84 


67.152 


Vs 


724.64 


95.426 


Vs 


1217.7 


123.700 


M 


363.05 


67.544 


l 2 


730.62 


95.819 


H 


1225.4 


124.093 


H 


367,28 


67.937 


■'* 


736.62 


96.211 


Vs 


1233.2 


124.486 


n 


371.54 


68.330 


% 


742.64 


96.604 


X 


1241.0 


124.878 


8 


375.83 


68.722 


Vs 


748 . 69 


96.997 


Vs 


1248.8 


125.271 


22. 


380.13 


69.115 


31. 


754.77 


97.389 


40. 


1256.6 


125.664 


H 


384.46 


69.508 


H 


760.87 


97.782 


Vs 


1264.5 


126.056 


m 


388.82 


69 . 900 


X 


766.99 


98.175 


X 


1272.4 


126.449 


8 


393.20 


70.293 


H 


773.14 


98.567 


Vs 


1280.3 


126.842 


|| 


397.61 


70.686 


H 


779.31 


98.960 


k 


1288.2 


127.235 


H 


402.04 


71.079 


H 


785.51 


99.353 


Vs 


1296.2 


127.627 


X 


406.49 


71.471 


% 


791.73 


99.746 


u 


1304.2 


128.020 


% 


410.97 


71.864 


Vs 


797.98 


100.138 


Vs 


1312.2 


128.413 


23. 


415.48 


72.257 


32. 


804.25 


100.531 


41. 


1320.3 


128.805 


H 


420.00 


72.649 


H 


810.54 


100.924 


Vs 


1328.3 


129.198 


H 


424.56 


73.042 


|| 


816.86 


101.316 


X 


1336.4 


129.591 


% 


429.13 


73.435 


n 


823.21 


101.709 


Vs 


1344.5 


129.983 


H 


433 . 74 


73.827 


Yi 


829.58 


102.102 


V2 


1352.7 


130.376 


H 


438.36 


74.220 


Vs 


835.97 


102.494 


H 


1360.8 


130 . 769 


8 


443.01 


74.613 


% 


842.39 


102.887 


H 


1369.0 


131.161 


K 


447.69 


75.006 


% 


848 . 83 


103.280 


Vs 


1377.2 


131.554 


24. 


452.39 


75.398 


33. 


855.30 


103.673 


42. 


1385.4 


131.947 


H 


457.11 


75.791 


H 


861.79 


104.065 


Vs 


1393.7 


132.340 


K 


461.86 


76.184 


H 


868.31 


104.458 


X 


1402.0 


132.732 


H 


466.64 


76.576 


^ 


874.85 


104.851 


Vs 


1410.3 


133.125 


l A 


471.44 


76.969 


Yi 


881.41 


105.243 


Vi 


1418.6 


133.518 


% 


476.26 


77.362 


Vs 


888 . 00 


105.636 


Vs 


1427.0 


133.910 


% 


481.11 


77.754 


H 


894.62 


106.029 


U 


1435.4 


134.303 


Vs 


485.98 


78.147 


Vs 


901.26 


106.421 


Vs 


1443.8 


134.696 


25. 


490.87 


78.540 


34. 


907.92 


106.814 


43. 


1452.2 


135.088 


H 


495 . 79 


78.933 


Vs 


914.61 


107.207 


Vs 


1460.7 


135.481 


H 


500.74 


79.325 


H 


921.32 


107.600 


X 


1469.1 


135.874 


R 


505.71 


79.718 


H 


928.06 


107.992 


Vs 


1477.6 


136.267 


H 


510.71 


80.111 


7% 


934.82 


108.385 


Vi 


1486.2 


136.659 


N 


515.72 


80 . 503 


Vs 


941.61 


108.778 


Vs 


1494.7 


137.052 


?* 


520.77 


80.896 


% 


948 . 42 


109.170 


X 


1503.3 


137.445 


K 


525.84 


81.289 


Vs 


955.25 


109,563 


Vs 


1511.9 


137.837 



OS> 



Areas and Circumferences of Circles 



Diam. 


Area 


Circum. 


Diam. 


Area 


Circum. 


Diam. 


Area 


Circum. 


44. 


1520.5 


138.230 


53 ? s 


2237.5 


167.683 


62 U 


3092.6 


197.135 


Vb 


1529.2 


138.623 


V2 


2248.0 


168.075 


Vb 


3104.9 


197.528 


H 


1537.9 


139.015 


Vs 


2258.5 


168.468 


63. 


3117.2 


197.920 


% 


1546.6 


139.408 


k 


2269.1 


168.861 


Vb 


3129.6 


198.313 


x 


1555.3 


139.801 


H 


2279.6 


169.253 


X 


3142.0 


198.706 


% 


1564.0 


140.194 


54. 


2290.2 


169.646 


Vb 


3154.5 


199.098 


x 


1572.8 


140.586 


H 


2300.8 


170.039 


H 


3166.9 


199.491 


H 


1581.6 


140.979 


X 


2311.5 


170.431 


H 


3179.4 


199.884 


45. 


1590.4 


141.372 


H 


2322.1 


170.824 


X 


3191.9 


200.277 


X 


1599.3 


141.764 


X. 


2332.8 


171.217 


% 


3204.4 


200 . 669 


k 


1608.2 


142.157 


% 


2343.5 


171.609 


64. 


3217.0 


201.062 


H 


1617.0 


142.550 


X 


2354.3 


172.002 


Vb 


3229.6 


201.455 


n 


1626.0 


142.942 


% 


2365.0 


172.395 


X 


3242.2 


201.847 


H 


1634.9 


143.335 


55. 


2375.8 


172.788 


Vb 


3254.8 


202.240 


X 


1643.9 


143.728 


H 


2386.6 


173.180 


H 


3267.5 


202.633 


Vb 


1652.9 


144.121 


X 


2397.5 


173.573 


Vb 


3280.1 


203.025 


46. 


1661.9 


144.513 


Vb 


2408 . 3 


173.966 


X 


3292.8 


203.418 


H 


1670.9 


144.906 


H 


2419.2 


174.358 


Vb 


3305.6 


203.811 


X 


1680.0 


145.299 


H 


2430 . 1 


174.751 


65. 


3318.3 


204.204 


H 


1689.1 


145.691 


u 


2441.1 


175.144 


Vb 


3331.1 


204.596 


H 


1698.2 


146.084 


% 


2452.0 


175.536 


X 


3343.9 


204.989 


Vb 


1707.4 


146.477 


56. 


2463 . 


175.929 


Vb 


3356.7 


205.382 


X 


1716.5 


146.869 


H 


2474.0 


176.322 


H 


3369.6 


205.774 


H 


1725.7 


147.262 


X 


2485.0 


176.715 


H 


3382.4 


206.167 


47. 


1734.9 


147.655 


Vb 


2496.1 


177.107 


H 


3395.3 


206.560 


H 


1744.2 


148.048 


H 


2507.2 


177.500 


Vb 


3408.2 


206.952 


H 


1753.5 


148.440 


Vb 


2518.3 


177.893 


66. 


3421.2 


207.345 


% 


1762.7 


148.833 


% 


2529.4 


178.285 


Vb 


3434.2 


207.738 


£i 


1772.1 


149.226 


% 


2540.6 


178.678 


X 


3447.2 


208.131 


% 


1781.4 


149.618 


57. 


2551.8 


179.071 


Vb 


3460.2 


208.523 


X 


1790.8 


150.011 


Vb 


2563.0 


179.463 


H 


3473.2 


208.916 


% 


1800.1 


150.404 


X 


2574.2 


179.856 


Vb 


3486.3 


209.309 


48. 


1809.6 


150.796 


Vb 


2585.4 


180.249 


X 


3499 . 4 


209.701 


H 


1819.0 


151.189 


Vi 


2596.7 


180.642 


Vb 


3512.5 


210.094 


X 


1828.5 


151.582 


Vb 


2608.0 


181.034 


67. 


3525.7 


210.487 


Vs 


1837.9 


151.975 


% 


2619.4 


181.427 


Vb 


3538.8 


210.879 


H 


1847.5 


152.367 


Vb 


2630.7 


181.820 


k 


3552.0 


211.272 


V* 


1857.0 


152.760 


58. 


2642.1 


182.212 


Vb 


3565 . 2 


211.665 


X 


1866.5 


153.153 


Vb 


2653.5 


182.605 


H 


3578.5 


212.058 


% 


1876.1 


153.545 


X 


2664.9 


182.998 


Vb 


3591.7 


212.450 


49. 


1885.7 


153.938 


% 


2676.4 


183.390 


H 


3605.0 


212.843 


Vb 


1895.4 


154.331 


l A 


2687.8 


183.783 


Vb 


3618.3 


213.236 


X 


1905.0 


154.723 


% 


2699.3 


184.176 


68. 


3631.7 


213.628 


Vb 


1914.7 


155.116 


X 


2710.9 


184.569 


N 


3645.0 


214.021 


U 


1924.4 


155.509 


Vb 


2722.4 


184.961 


X 


3658.4 


214.414 


% 


1934.2 


155.902 


59. 


2734.0 


185.354 


Vb 


3671.8 


214.806 


% 


1943.9 


156.294 


Vb 


2745.6 


185.747 


H 


3685 . 3 


215.199 


H 


1953.7 


156.687 


X 


2757.2 


186.139 


Vs 


3698.7 


215.592 


so. 


1963.5 


157.080 


% 


2768.8 


186.532 


X 


3712.2 


215.984 


H 


1973.3 


157.472 


1 2 


2780.5 


186.925 


Vb 


3725.7 


216.377 


H 


1983.2 


157.865 


H 


2792.2 


187.317 


69. 


3739.3 


216.770 


Vb 


1993.1 


158.258 


U 


2803.9 


187.710 


Vb 


3752.8 


217.163 


H 


2003.0 


158.650 


Vb 


2815.7 


188.103 


X 


3766.4 


217.555 


Vs 


2012.9 


159.043 


60. 


2827.4 


188.496 


■^ 


3780.0 


217.948 


H 


2022.8 


159.436 


Vb 


2839.2 


188.888 


H 


3793.7 


218.341 


H 


2032.8 


159.829 


X 


2851.0 


189.281 


H 


3807.3 


218.733 


51. 


2042.8 


160.221 


Vb 


2862.9 


189.674 


X 


3821.0 


219.126 


H 


2052.8 


160.614 


Yi 


2874.8 


190.066 


Vb 


3834.7 


219.519 


k 


2062.9 


161.007 


Vb 


2886.6 


190.459 


70. 


3848.5 


219.911 


% 


2073.0 


161.399 


fj 


2898.6 


190.852 


Vb 


3862.2 


220.304 


H 


2083 . 1 


161.792 


Vb 


2910.5 


191.244 


X 


3876.0 


220.697 


H 


2093.2 


162.185 


61. 


2922.5 


191.637 


H 


3889.8 


221.090 


X 


2103.3 


162.577 


Vb 


2934 . 5 


192.030 


H 


3903.6 


221.482 


% 


2113.5 


162.970 


X 


2946.5 


192.423 


Vb 


3917.5 


221.875 


52. 


2123.7 


163.363 


Vb 


2958.5 


192.815 


X 


3931.4 


222.268 


Vb 


2133.9 


163.756 


V% 


2970.6 


193.208 


Vb 


3945.3 


222.660 


X 


2144.2 


164.148 


H 


2982.7 


193.601 


71. 


3959.2 


223.053 


H 


2154.5 


164.541 


K 


2994.8 


193.993 


Vs 


3973.1 


223.446 


l A 


2164.8 


164.934 


Vb 


3006.9 


194.386 


>.i 


3987.1 


223.838 


% 


2175.1 


165.326 


62. 


3019.1 


194.779 


Vb 


4001.1 


224.231 


k 


2185.4 


165.719 


Vb 


3031.3 


195.171 


H 


4015.2 


224.624 


Vb 


2195.8 


166.112 


X 


3043.5 


195.564 


Vb 


4029.2 


225.017 


53. 


2206.2 


166.504 


Vb 


3055.7 


195.957 


X 


4043.3 


225.409 


Vb 


2216.6 


166.897 


H 


3068.0 


196.350 


Vb 


4057.4 


225.802 


X 


2227.0 


167.290 


% 


3080.3 


196.742 


72. 


4071.5 


226.195 



{44} 



Areas and Circumferences of Circles 



Diam. 


Area 


Circum. 


Diam. 


Area. 


Circum. 


Diam. 


Area 


Circum. 


72 H 


4085.7 


226.587 


81 X 


5216.8 


256.040 


90 h 


6486.0 


285.492 


k 


4099.8 


226.980 


% 


5232.8 


256.433 


91. 


6503.9 


285.885 


% 


4114.0 


227.373 


% 


5248.9 


256.825 


X 


6521.8 


286.278 


X 


4128.2 


227.765 


% 


5264.9 


257.218 


X 


6539.7 


286.670 


% 


4142.5 


228.158 


82. 


5281.0 


257.611 


% 


6557.6 


287.063 


U 


4156.8 


228.551 


X 


5297.1 


258.003 


X 


6575.5 


287.456 


% 


4171.1 


228.944 


k 


5313.3 


258.396 


% 


6593.5 


287.848 


73. 


4185.4 


229.336 


X 


5329.4 


258.789 


X 


6611.5 


288.241 


X 


4199.7 


229.729 


X 


5345.6 


259.181 


Vs 


6629.6 


288.634 


H 


4214.1 


230.122 


X 


5361.8 


259.574 


92. 


6647.6 


289.027 


X 


4228.5 


230.514 


% 


5378.1 


259.967 


X 


6665 . 7 


289.419 


X 


4242.9 


230.907 


% 


5394.3 


260.359 


y* 


6683.8 


289.812 


% 


4257-4 


231.300 


83. 


5410.6 


260.752 


% 


6701.9 


290.205 


% 


4271.8 


231.692 


X 


5426.9 


261.145 


Vi 


6720.1 


290.597 


% 


4286.3 


232.085 


1 1 


5443 . 3 


261.538 


% 


6738.2 


290.990 


74. 


4300.8 


232.478 


X 


5459.6 


261.930 


% 


6756.4 


291.383 


X 


4315.4 


232.871 


X 


5476.0 


262.323 


% 


6774.7 


291.775 


k 


4329.9 


233.263 


% 


5492.4 


262.716 


93. 


6792.9 


292.168 


% 


4344.5 


233.656 


% 


5508.8 


263.108 


X 


6811.2 


292.561 


V2 


4359.2 


234.049 


X 


5525.3 


263.501 


X 


6829 . 5 


292.954 


% 


4373.8 


234.441 


84. 


5541.8 


263.894 


% 


6847.8 


293.346 


X 


4388.5 


234 . 834 


X 


5558.3 


264.286 


X 


6866 . 1 


293 . 739 


% 


4403.1 


235.227 


X 


5574.8 


264.679 


% 


6884.5 


294.132 


75. 


4417.9 


235.619 


% 


5591.4 


265.072 


u 


6902.9 


294.524 


X 


4432.6 


236.012 


H 


5607.9 


265.465 


% 


6921.3 


294.917 


k 


4447.4 


236.405 


% 


5624.5 


265.857 


94. 


6939 . 8 


295.310 


% 


4462.2 


236.798 


% 


5641 . 2 


266.250 


X 


6958.2 


295.702 


X 


4477.0 


237.190 


% 


5657.8 


266.643 


X 


6976.7 


296.095 


% 


4491.8 


237.583 


85. 


5674.5 


267.035 


% 


6995.3 


296.488 


X 


4506.7 


237.976 


X 


5691 . 2 


267.428 


X 


7013.8 


296.881 


% 


4521.5 


238.368 


X 


5707.9 


267.821 


% 


7032.4 


297.273 


76. 


4536.5 


238.761 


% 


5724.7 


268.213 


% 


7051.0 


297.666 


Vs 


4551.4 


239.154 


X 


5741.5 


268.606 


% 


7069.6 


298.059 


% 


4566.4 


239.546 


X 


5758.3 


268.999 


95. 


7088 . 2 


298.451 


% 


4581.3 


239.939 


X 


5775.1 


269.392 


X 


7106.9 


298.844 


X 


4596.3 


240.332 


% 


5791.9 


269.784 


X 


6125.6 


299.237 


X 


4611.4 


240.725 


86. 


5808.8 


270.177 


% 


7144.3 


299.629 


U 


4626.4 


241.117 


X 


5825.7 


270.570 


X 


7163.0 


300.022 


Vs 


4641.5 


241.510 


k 


5842.6 


270.962 


% 


7181.8 


300.415 


77. 


4656.6 


241.903 


% 


5859.6 


271.355 


% 


7200.6 


300.807 


X 


4671.8 


242.295 


X 


5876.5 


271.748 


X 


7219.4 


301.200 


X 


4686.9 


242.688 


% 


5893 . 5 


272.140 


96. 


7238.2 


301.593 


Vs 


4702.1 


243.081 


H 


5910.6 


272.533 


X 


7257.1 


301.986 


X 


4717.3 


243.473 


Vs 


5927.6 


272.926 


X 


7276.0 


302.378 


X 


4732.5 


243 . 866 


87. 


5944.7 


273.319 


% 


7294.9 


302.771 


% 


4747,8 


244.259 


X 


5961.8 


273.711 


X 


7313.8 


303.164 


X 


4763 . 1 


244.652 


X 


5978.9 


274.104 


% 


7332.8 


303.556 


78. 


4778.4 


245.044 


% 


5996.0 


274.497 


u 


7351.8 


303.949 


X 


4793.7 


245.437 


y% 


6013.2 


274.889 


X 


7370.8 


304.342 


X 


4809 . 


245.830 


% 


6030 . 4 


275.282 


97. 


7389.8 


304.734 


% 


4824.4 


246.222 


s i 


6047.6 


275.675 


H 


7408.9 


305 . 127 


X 


4839.8 


246.615 


X 


6064.9 


276.067 


X 


7428.0 


305.520 


Vs 


4855 . 2 


247.008 


88. 


6082.1 


276.460 


Vs 


7447.1 


305.913 


% 


4870.7 


247.400 


X A> 


6099.4 


276.853 


X 


7466.2 


306.305 


Vs 


4886.2 


247.793 


X 


6116.7 


277.246 


% 


7485 . 3 


306.698 


79. 


4901 . 7 


248.186 


H 


6134.1 


277.638 


% 


7504.5 


307.091 


X 


4917.2 


248.579 


X 


6151.4 


278.031 


X 


7523.7 


307.483 


X 


4932.7 


248.971 


% 


6168.8 


278.424 


98. 


7543.0 


307.876 


% 


4948.3 


249.364 


II 


6186.2 


278.816 


X 


7562.2 


308.269 


X 


4963 . 9 


249.757 


X 


6203.7 


279.209 


X 


7581.5 


308.661 


Vs 


4979.5 


250.149 


89. 


6221.1 


279.602 


% 


7600 . 8 


309.054 


% 


4995 . 2 


250.542 


X 


6238.6 


279.994 


X 


7620.1 


309 , 447 


% 


5010.9 


250.935 


X 


6256.1 


280.387 


X 


7639.5 


309.840 


80. 


5026.5 


251.327 


H 


6273.7 


280.780 


% 


7658.9 


310.232 


X 


5042.3 


251.720 


X 


6291.2 


281.173 


X 


7678.3 


310.625 


X 


5058.0 


252.113 


% 


6308.8 


281.565 


99. 


7697.7 


311.018 


Vs 


5073.8 


252.506 


% 


6326.4 


281.958 


X 


7717.1 


311.410 


X 


5089.6 


252.898 


% 


6344.1 


282.351 


X 


7736.6 


311.803 


% 


5105.4 


253.291 


90. 


6361 . 7 


282.743 


% 


7756.1 


312.196 


% 


5121.2 


253.684 


X 


6379.4 


283.136 


X 


7775.6 


312.588 


Vs 


5137.1 


254.076 


k 


6397.1 


283.529 


Vs 


7795.2 


312.981 


81. 


5153.0 


254.469 


% 


6414.9 


283.921 


% 


7814.8 


313.374 


X 


5168.9 


254.862 


X 


6432.6 


284.314 


% 


7834.4 


313.767 


H 


5184.9 


255.254 


% 


6450.4 


284.707 


100. 


7854,0 


314.159 


% 


5200.8 


255.647 


% 


6468 . 2 


285.100 









{4,5} 



Ft. of Length 







Area* 


Vol. 


Gal. 




Area* 


Vol. 


Gal. 


Diameter 


Sq. Ft. 


Cu. In. 


(U. S.) 


Diameter 


Sq. Ft. 


Cu. In. 


(U. S.) 


Ft. 


In. 








Ft. In. 











H 


.0003 


.5775 


.0025 


i 1H 


.994 


1717.7 


7.436 




% 


.0005 


. 9240 


.004 


2 


1.069 


1847.3 


7.999 




Vs 


.0008 


1.3167 


.0057 


2H 


1.147 


1981.5 


8.578 




Ke 


.001 


1.8018 


.0078 


3 


1.227 


2120.6 


9.180 




H 


.0014 


2.3562 


.0102 


SH 


1.310 


2264.0 


9.800 




Ke 


.0017 


2.9799 


.0129 


4 


1.396 


2411.6 


10.44 




% 


.0021 


3.6729 


.0159 


4H 


1.485 


2566.4 


11.11 




l M< 


.0026 


4.4583 


.0193 


5 


1.576 


2723.4 


11.79 




% 


.0031 


5.3130 


.0230 


SH 


1.670 


2885.3 


12.49 




l Hs 


.0036 


6.2139 


.0269 


6 


1.768 


3053.8 


13.22 




% 


.0042 


7.2072 


.0312 


6H 


1.867 


3224.8 


13.96 




X H% 


.0048 


8.2929 


.0359 


7 


1 . 969 


3402 . 6 


14.73 




1 


.0055 


9.4248 


.0408 


7H 


2.074 


3582.8 


15.51 




IK 


.0085 


14.738 


. 0638 


8 


2.182 


3796.9 


16.32 




1M 


.0123 


21.206 


.0918 


*x 


2.292 


3961.6 


17.15 




i% 


.0167 


28.852 


.1249 


9 


2.405 


4155.6 


17.99 




2 


.0218 


37.699 


.1632 


9H 


2.521 


4356.7 


18.86 




2% 


.0276 


47.725 


. 2066 


10 


2.640 


4562.2 


19.75 




2M 


.0341 


58.905 


.2550 


10 H 


2.761 


4772.5 


20.66 




2% 


.0412 


71.263 


.3085 


11 


2.885 
3.012 


4984.9 
5204.4 


21.58 
22.53 




3 


.0491 


84.823 


.3672 












3M 


.0576 


99 . 538 


.4309 


2 


3.142 


5428.5 


23.50 




sy 2 


.0668 


115.45 


.4998 


1 


3.409 


5890 . 5 


25.50 




z% 


.0767 


132.56 


.5738 


2 


3.687 


6370.9 


25.58 




4 


.0873 


150.80 


.6528 


3 

4 


3.976 
4.276 


6869.9 
7388.7 


29.74 
31.99 




4U 


.0985 


170.22 


.7369 


5 


4.587 


7925.6 


34.31 




4H 


.1104 


190.87 


.8263 












*% 


.1231 


212.66 


.9206 


6 


4.909 


8482.3 


36.72 




5 


.1364 


235.62 


1.020 


7 


5.241 


9057.5 


39.21 




5K 


.1503 


259.87 


1.125 


8 
9 


5.585 
5.940 


9651.2 
10263. 


41.78 
44.43 




5V 2 


.1650 


285.05 


1.234 


10 


6.305 


10893 . 


47.16 




$H 


. 1803 


311.62 


1.349 


11 


6.681 


11545. 


49.98 




6 


.1963 


339.34 


1.469 


3 


7.069 


12115. 


52.88 




6^ 


.2131 


368.21 


1.594 


1 


7.467 


12903. 


55.86 




6M 


.2304 


398 . 24 


1.724 


2 
3 


7.876 
8 . 296 


13610. 
14335. 


58.92 

62.06 




6^ 


.2485 


429.43 


1.859 


4 


8.727 


15079. 


65.28 




7 


.2673 


461.77 


1.999 


5 


9.168 


15842. 


68.58 




7M 


.2867 


495.49 


2.145 












7J^ 


.3068 


530.14 


2.295 


6 


9.621 


16625. 


71.97 




T« 


.3276 


563.95 


2.45 


7- 
8 


10.085 
10.559 


17426. 
18246. 


75 . 44 
78.99 




8 


.3491 


603.14 


2.611 


9 


11.045 


19085. 


82.62 




8^ 


.3712 


641.49 


2.777 


10 


11.541 


19942. 


86.33 




8^ 


.3941 


680 . 99 


2.948 


11 


12.048 


20813. 


90.10 




8^ 


.4176 


721.87 


3.125 












9 


.4418 


763.45 


3.305 


4 
1 


12.566 
13.095 


21714. 
22628. 


94.00 
97.96 




9M 


.4667 


816.42 


3.491 


2 


13.635 


23562. 


102.00 




9J/ 2 


.4932 


850.54 


3.682 


3 


14.186 


24509. 


106.12 




9M 


.5185 


896.05 


3.879 


4 


14.748 


25479. 


110.32 




10 


.5454 


942 . 48 


4.08 


5 


15.321 


26472. 


114.61 




io M 


.5730 


990.07 


4.286 


6 


15.90 


27466. 


118.97 




10 ^ 


.6013 


1039.0 


4.498 


7 


16.50 


28505. 


123.42 




10% 


. 6303 


1089.2 


4.715 


8 


17.10 


29545. 


127.95 




li 


.66 


1140.4 


4.937 


9 


17.72 


30607. 


132.56 




liH 


.6903 


1192.9 


5.164 


10 


18.35 


31693. 


137.25 




11 H 


.7213 


1246.5 


5.396 


11 


18.99 


32802. 


142.02 




11 M 


.7530 


1301.2 


5.633 


5 


19.63 


33910. 


146.88 


1 




l 


.7854 
.8522 
.9218 


1357.1 

1472.6 
1592.7 


5.875 
6.375 
6.895 


1 


20.29 


35065. 


151.82 



Capacity of Cylindrical Vessels per Ft. of Length 

Z Area* Vol. Gal. „. Area* Vol. Gal. 







Area* 


Vol. 


Gal. 




Area* 


Vol. 


Gal. 


Diameter 


Sq. Ft. 


Cu. In. 


(U. S.) 


Diameter 


Sq. Ft. 


Cu. In. 


(U. S.) 


Ft. 


In. 








Ft. In. 








5 


2 


20.97 


36228 


156.83 


18 3 


261.59 


452021 


1956.8 




3 


21.65 


37406 


161.93 


6 


268.80 


464495 


2010.8 




4 


22.34 


38605 


167.12 


9 


276.12 


477131 


2065.5 




5 


23.04 


39820 


172.38 












6 


23.76 


41053 


177.72 


19 


283.53 


489928 


2120.9 




7 


24 . 48 


42308 


183.15 


3 


291.04 


502910 


2177.1 




8 


25.22 


43585 


188.68 


6 


298.65 


516054 


2234.0 




9 


25.97 


44872 


194.25 


9 


306.35 


529383 


2291.7 




10 


26.73 


46182 


199.92 












11 


27.49 


47510 


205.67 


20 
3 


314.16 
322.06 


542873 
556525 


2350.1 

2409.2 


6 





28.27 


48859 


211.51 


6 


330.06 


570362 


2469.1 




3 


30.68 


53015 


229.50 


9 


338.16 


584338 


2529.6 




6 


33.18 


57341 


248.23 












9 


35.78 


61836 


267.69 


21 
3 


346.36 
354.66 


598521 
612843 


2591.0 
2653.0 


7 





38.48 


66500 


287.88 


6 


363.05 


627350 


2715.8 




3 


41.28 


71335 


308.81 


9 


371.54 


642018 


2779.3 




6 


44.18 


76341 


330.48 












9 


47.17 


81515 


352.88 


22 
3 


380.13 
388.82 


656872 
671887 


2843.6 
2908.6 


8 





50.27 


86858 


376.01 


6 


397.61 


687063 


2974.3 




3 


53 . 46 


92372 


399.88 


9 


406.49 


702425 


3040.8 




6 


56.75 


98055 


424.48 












9 


60.13 


103908 


449.82 


23 
3 


415.48 
424.56 


717948 
733633 


3108.0 
3175.9 


9 





63.62 


109931 


475.89 


6 


433 . 74 


749503 


3244.6 




3 


67.20 


116123 


502.70 


9 


443.01 


765534 


3314.0 




6 


70.88 


122485 


530.24 












9 


74.66 


129016 


558.51 


24 
3 


452.39 
461.86 


781727 
798105 


3384.1 
3455.0 


10 





78.54 


135717 


587.52 


6 


471.44 


814645 


3526.6 




3 


82.52 


142587 


617.26 


9 


481.11 


831346 


3598.9 




6 


86.59 


149628 


647.74 












9 


90.76 


156837 


678.95 


25 
3 


490 . 87 
500.74 


848232 
865280 


3672.0 
3745.8 


11 





95.03 


164218 


710.90 


6 


510.71 


882489 


3820.3 




3 


99.40 


171767 


743.58 


9 


520.77 


899884 


3895.4 




6 
9 


103.87 

108.43 


179485 

187373 


776.99 
811.14 


26 
3 


530.93 
541.19 


917440 
935180 


3971.6 

4048.4 


12 



3 


113.10 
117.86 


195433 

203661 


846.03 
881.65 


6 
9 


551.55 

562.00 


953083 
971147 


4125.9 
4204.1 




6 


122.72 


212058 


918.00 


27 


572.56 


989373 


4283.0 




9 


127.68 


220625 


955.09 


3 

6 


583.21 

593.96 


1007784 
1026356 


4362.7 
4443.1 


13 



3 


132.73 
137.89 


229362 

238277 


992.91 
1031.5 


9 


604.81 


1045113 


4524.3 




6 


143.14 


247255 


1070.8 


28 


615.75 


1064032 


4606.2 




9 


148.49 


256595 


1110.8 


3 
6 


626.80 
637.94 


1083113 
1102355 


4688.8 
4772.1 


14 





153.94 


265997 


1151.5 


9 


649.18 


1121782 


4856.2 


15 


3 
6 

9 

3 


159.48 
165.13 
170.87 
176.71 
182.65 


275583 
285354 
295264 
305359 
318179 


1193.0 
1235.3 
1278.2 
1321.9 

1366.4 


29 
3 
6 
9 


660.52 
671.96 
683.49 
695.13 


1141371 
1161145 
1181080 
1201177 


4941.0 
5026.6 
5112.9 
5199.9 




6 


188.69 


326057 


1411.5 


30 


706.80 


1221459 


5287.7 




9 


194.83 


336659 


1457.4 


3 
6 


718.60 
730.62 


1241902 
1262507 


5376.2 
5465.4 


16 



3 


201.06 
207.39 


347447 
358373 


1504.1 
1551.4 


9 


742.64 


1283297 


5555.4 




6 


213.82 


369489 


1599.5 


31 


754.77 


1304249 


5646.1 




9 


220.35 


380780 


1648.4 


3 
6 


766.99 
779.31 


1325363 

1346661 


5737.5 
5829.7 


17 





226.98 


392215 


1697.9 


9 


791 . 73 


1368121 


5922.6 




3 


233.71 


403834 


1748.2 


32 


804.25 


1389742 


6016.2 




6 


240.53 


415638 


1799.3 


3 


816.86 


1411549 


6110.6 




9 


247.45 


427604 


1851 . 1 


6 


829.58 


1433517 


6205.7 


18 





254.47 


439732 


1903.6 


9 


842.39 


1455647 


6301.5 



♦Also equals cu. ft. volume per ft. length 



{47} 



LANCASTER HQS&SliSS IRON WORKS 



•♦♦3 




fff+- 

Weight of Circular Steel Plates 


Dia. 
In. 










Thickness, inches 




H 


Me 


H 


Me 


N 


Ke 


H I 


<{* 


N 


l Ht 


H 


16 


7 


11 


15 


18 


22 


25 


29 














17 


8 


12 


16 


20 


24 


28 


32 


















18 


9 


14 


18 


23 


27 


32 


36 


















19 


10 


15 


20 


25 


30 


35 


40 


















20 


11 


17 


23 


28 


34 


39 


45 


















21 


12 


19 


25 


31 


37 


43 


49 


















22 


14 


20 


27 


34 


41 


47 


54 


















23 


15 


22 


30 


37 


44 


52 


59 


















24 


16 


24 


32 


40 


48 


56 


64 


















25 


18 


26 


35 


44 


53 


61 


70 


















26 


19 


28 


38 


47 


56 


66 


75 


















27 


20 


30 


41 


51 


61 


71 


81 


















28 


22 


33 


44 


55 


65 


76 


87 


















29 


24 


35 


47 


59 


71 


82 


94 


















30 


25 


38 


50 


63 


75 


88 


100 


















31 


27 


40 


54 


67 


80 


94 


107 


















32 


29 


43 


57 


71 


86 


100 


114 


















33 


30 


45 


61 


76 


91 


106 


121 


















34 


32 


48 


65 


81 


97 


113 


129 


















35 


34 


51 


68 


85 


102 


119 


136 


















36 


36 


54 


72 


90 


108 


126 


144 ] 


L62 


180 


198 


216 


37 


38 


57 


76 


95 


115 


134 


153 ] 


L72 


191 


210 


229 


38 


40 


60 


80 


100 


121 


141 


161 ] 


LSI 


201 


221 


241 


39 


42 


64 


85 


106 


127 


148 


169 ] 


L90 


212 


233 


254 


40 


45 


67 


89 


111 


134 


156 


178 : 


100 


223 


245 


267 


41 


47 


70 


94 


117 


141 


164 


187 5 


111 


234 


258 


281 


42 


49 


74 


98 


123 


148 


172 


197 : 


!21 


246 


270 


295 


43 


52 


77 


103 


129 


155 


180 


206 : 


J32 


258 


283 


309 


44 


54 


81 


108 


135 


162 


188 


215 I 


H2 


269 


296 


323 


45 


56 


85 


113 


141 


169 


197 


225 : 


J 53 


282 


310 


338 


46 


59 


88 


118 


147 


177 


206 


235 5 


!65 


294 


324 


353 


47 


62 


92 


123 


154 


185 


215 


246 


277 


308 


338 


369 


48 


64 


96 


128 


160 


193 


225 


257 I 


289 


321 


353 


385 


49 


67 


100 


134 


167 


201 


234 


267 : 


iOl 


334 


367 


401 


50 


70 


105 


139 


174 


209 


244 


279 


J13 


348 


383 


418 


51 




109 


145 


181 


217 


253 


289 


J25 


362 


398 


434 


52 




113 


151 


188 


226 


263 


301 : 


J39 


376 


414 


452 


53 




117 


156 


195 


235 


273 


313 


152 


391 


430 


469 


54 




122 


162 


203 


244 


284 


325 


J65 


406 


446 


487 


55 




126 


168 


210 


253 


295 


337 


379 


421 


463 


505 


56 




131 


175 


218 


262 


305 


349 


J93 


436 


480 


524 


57 




136 


181 


226 


272 


317 


362 


107 


453 


498 


543 


58 




141 


187 


234 


281 


328 


375 


121 


468 


515 


562 


59 




145 


194 


242 


291 


339 


387 


136 


484 


533 


581 


60 




150 


200 


250 


301 


351 


401 


151 


501 


551 


601 


61 




155 


207 


259 


311 


362 


414 


166 


518 


569 


621 


62 




161 


214 


268 


321 


375 


428 


*82 


535 


589 


642 


63 




166 


221 


276 


332 


387 


442 


*97 


553 


608 


663 


64 




171 


228 


285 


342 


399 


456 


513 


570 


627 


684 


65 




177 


235 


294 


353 


412 


471 


529 


588 


647 


706 


66 




182 


243 


303 


364 


425 


485 


546 


607 


667 


728 


67 




188 


250 


313 


375 


438 


500 


563 


625 


688 


750 


68 




193 


257 


322 


386 


450 


515 


579 


643 


708 


772 


69 




199 


265 


331 


398 


464 


530 


596 


663 


729 


795 


70 




205 


273 


341 


409 


477 


545 


513 


682 


750 


818 


71 




211 


281 


351 


421 


491 


561 


631 


702 


772 


842 


72 




217 


289 


361 


433 


505 


577 


649 


722 


794 


866 


73 




223 


297 


371 


445 


519 


593 


667 


742 


816 


890 


74 




226 


305 


381 


458 


534 


610 


686 


763 


839 


915 


75 




235 


313 


391 


470 


548 


626 


704 


783 


861 


939 


76 




241 


322 


402 


482 


563 


643 


723 


804 


884 


964 


77 




248 


330 


413 


495 


578 


660 


743 


825 


908 


990 


78 




254 


339 


423 


508 


593 


678 


762 


847 


932 


1016 


79 




260 


348 


434 


521 


608 


695 


782 


869 


956 


1043 


80 




267 


356 


445 


534 


623 


713 


802 


891 


980 


1069 


81 




273 


365 


457 


548 


639 


731 


822 


913 


1004 


1096 


82 




280 


374 


468 


561 


655 


749 


842 


936 


1029 


1123 


83 




288 


384 


479 


575 


671 


767 


863 


959 


1055 | 1151 



148^ 



LANCASTER 



•+4a= 



IRON WORKS 



» ♦ • 



Weight of Circular Steel Plates— Continued 



Dia. 






Thickness, inches 


In. 


Me 


H 


He 


% 


H% 


H 


He 


% 


l Hi 


H 


l He 


% 


15 Ae 


1 


84 


294 


393 


491 


589 


687 


786 


884 


982 


1080 


1179 


1277 


1375 


1473 


1571 


85 


302 


402 


503 


603 


704 


805 


905 


1006 


1106 


1207 


1307 


1408 


1508 


1609 


86 


309 


412 


515 


618 


721 


824 


926 


1029 


1132 


1235 


1338 


1441 


1544 


1647 


87 


316, 


422 


527 


632 


738 


843 


948 


1054 


1159 


1265 


1370 


1475 


1581 


1686 


88 


323 


431 


539 


647 


755 


863 


970 


1078 


1186 


1294 


1402 


1509 


1617 


1725 


89 


331 


441 


551 


661 


771 


882 


992 


1102 


1212 


1323 


1433 


1543 


1653 


1763 


90 


338 


451 


564 


677 


789 


902 


1015 


1128 


1240 


1353 


1466 


1579 


1691 


1804 


91 


345 


461 


576 


692 


807 


922 


1037 


1153 


1268 


1383 


1495 


1614 


1729 


1844 


92 


353 


471 


589 


707 


825 


943 


1060 


1178 


1296 


1414 


1532 


1649 


1767 


1885 


93 


362 


482 


602 


722 


843 


963 


1084 


1204 


1324 


1445 


1565 


1686 


1806 


1926 


94 


369 


492 


615 


738 


861 


984 


1107 


1230 


1353 


1476 


1599 


1722 


1845 


1968 


95 


377 


503 


628 


754 


879 


1005 


1131 


1256 


1382 


1507 


1633 


1759 


1884 


2010 


96 




513 


641 


769 


897 


1026 


1154 


1282 


1410 


1538 


1666 


1795 


1923 


2052 


97 




524 


654 


785 


916 


1047 


1178 


1309 


1440 


1570 


1701 


1832 


1963 


2095 


98 




535 


668 


801 


935 


1069 


1202 


1336 


1469 


1603 


1737 


1870 


2004 


2139 


99 




546 


682 


818 


954 


1091 


1227 


1363 


1500 


1636 


1772 


1908 


2045 


2183 


100 




557 


696 


835 


974 


1113 


1252 


1391 


1530 


1669 


1809 


1948 


2087 


2227 


101 




568 


710 


852 


994 


1136 


1278 


1420 


1562 


1704 


1846 


1988 


2130 


2272 


102 




579 


724 


869 


1014 


1158 


1303 


1448 


1593 


1738 


1882 


2027 


2172 


2317 


103 




591 


739 


886 


1034 


1182 


1329 


1477 


1624 


1772 


1919 


2067 


2214 


2363 


104 




602 


753 


903 


1054 


1204 


1355 


1505 


1656 


1806 


1957 


2107 


2258 


2409 


105 




614 


768 


921 


1074 


1228 


1381 


1534 


1688 


1841 


1994 


2148 


2302 


2455 


106 




626 


782 


939 


1095 


1251 


1408 


1564 


1720 


1877 


2033 


2189 


2346 


2502 


107 




637 


797 


956 


1116 


1275 


1434 


1593 


1753 


1912 


2071 


2231 


2390 


2550 


108 




649 


812 


974 


1136 


1299 


1461 


1623 


1786 


1948 


2110 


2273 


2435 


2598 


109 




662 


827 


992 


1158 


1323 


1488 


1653 


1819 


1984 


2149 


2315 


2480 


2646 


110 




673 


842 


1010 


1179 


1347 


1516 


1684 


1853 


2029 


2189 


2358 


2526 


2695 


111 




686 


857 


1028 


1200 


1372 


1543 


1715 


1886 


2058 


2229 


2401 


2572 


2744 


112 




693 


873 


1048 


1222 


1397 


1571 


1746 


1920 


2095 


2270 


2444 


2619 


2793 


113 




711 


889 


1066 


1244 


1422 


1599 


1777 


1955 


2133 


2310 


2488 


2666 


2844 


114 




724 


904 


1085 


1266 


1447 


1628 


1809 


1990 


2171 


2351 


2532 


2713 


2894 


115 




736 


920 


1104 


1288 


1473 


1657 


1841 


2025 


2209 


2393 


2577 


2761 


2945 


116 




749 


936 


1124 


1311 


1498 


1686 


1873 


2060 


2247 


2435 


2622 


2809 


2997 


117 




762 


953 


1143 


1334 


1524 


1715 


1905 


2096 


2286 


2477 


2667 


2858 


3048 


118 
119 




775 


969 


1163 


1357 


1550 


1744 


1938 


2132 


2326 


2519 


2713 


2907 


3101 




788 


985 


1183 


1380 


1577 


1774 


1971 


2168 


2365 


2562 


2759 


2956 


3154 


120 




802 


1002 


1203 


1403 


1604 


1804 


2005 


2205 


2406 


2606 


2807 


3007 


3208 


121 




815 


1019 


1223 


1426 


1630 


1834 


2038 


2242 


2445 


2649 


2853 


3057 


3260 


122 




829 


1036 


1243 


1450 


1657 


1864 


2072 


2279 


2486 


2693 


2900 


3107 


3314 


123 




842 


1053 


1263 


1474 


1685 


1895 


2106 


2316 


2527 


2737 


2948 


3159 


3369 


124 




856 


1070 


1284 


1498 


1712 


1926 


2140 


2354 


2568 


2782 


2996 


3210 


3424 


125 




870 


1087 


1305 


1522 


1740 


1957 


2175 


2392 


2610 


2827 


3045 


3262 


3480 


126 




884 


1105 


1326 


1547 


1768 


1989 


2210 


2431 


2652 


2872 


3093 


3315 


3535 


127 




898 


1122 


1347 


1571 


1796 


2020 


2245 


2469 


2694 


2918 


3143 


3367 


3592 


128 




912 


1140 


1368 


1596 


1824 


2052 


2280 


2508 


2736 


2964 


3192 


3420 


3649 


129 




926 


1158 


1390 


1621 


1853 


2085 


2316 


2548 


2779 


3011 


3242 


3474 


3706 


130 




941 


1176 


1411 


1646 


1882 


2117 


2352 


2587 


2822 


3058 


3293 


3528 


3764 


131 




955 


1194 


1433 


1672 


1911 


2150 


2389 


2627 


2866 


3105 


3344 


3583 


3822 


132 




970 


1213 


1455 


1698 


1940 


2183 


2425 


2668 


2910 


3153 


3395 


3638 


3880 


133 




985 


1231 


1477 


1723 


1970 


2216 


2462 


2708 


2954 


3200 


3446 


3693 


3939 


134 




1000 


1250 


1500 


1750 


1999 


2249 


2499 


2749 


2999 


3249 


3499 


3749 


3999 


135 




1015 


1268 


1522 


1775 


2030 


2284 


2537 


2790 


3044 


3298 


3551 


3805 


4059 


136 




1029 


1286 


1543 


1900 


2057 


2315 


2572 


2829 


3086 


3344 


3601 


3858 


4115 


137 




1044 


1300 


1560 


1820 


2088 


2340 


2600 


2860 


3132 


3380 


3640 


3900 


4176 


138 




1059 


1321 


1585 


1849 


2118 


2378 


2642 


2906 


3177 


3435 


3699 


3963 


4237 


139 




1075 


1344 


1613 


1882 


2150 


2419 


2688 


2957 


3225 


3494 


3763 


4032 


4300 


140 
141 
142 
143 
144 
145 
146 
147 
148 
149 




1090 


1363 


1635 


1908 


2180 


2453 


2725 


2998 


3270 


3543 


3815 


4088 


4361 




1106 


1383 


1659 


1936 


2212 


2489 


2765 


3042 


3318 


3595 


3871 


4148 


4424 




1122 


1402 


1682 


1963 


2243 


2524 


2804 


3084 


3365 


3645 


3926 


4206 


4487 




1137 


1422 


1706 


1991 


2275 


2560 


2844 


3128 


3412 


3697 


3982 


4266 


4550 




1153 


1442 


1730 


2019 


2307 


2596 


2884 


3172 


3460 


3749 


4038 


4326 


4614 




1169 


1462 


1754 


2047 


2339 


2632 


2924 


3216 


3508 


3801 


4094 


4386 


4678 




1186 


1482 


1778 


2075 


2371 


2668 


2964 


3260 


3557 


3853 


4150 


4446 


4743 




1202 


1503 


1803 


2104 


2404 


2705 


3005 


3306 


3606 


3907 


4207 


4508 


4808 




1218 


1523 


1828 


2132 


2437 


2741 


3046 


3351 


3655 


3960 


4264 


4569 


4874 




1235 


1544 


1852 


2161 


2470 


2778 


3087 


3396 


3705 


4013 


4322 


4631 


4940 


150 


1251 


1565 


1877 


2190 


2503 


2816 


3129 


3442 


3754 


4068 


4381 


4694 


5006 



on 



♦4S= 



LANCASTER T^klf IIS IRON WORKS 



1/1 

q 

o 

H 

o 

ti) 
u 

a) 

t 

o 



O 



t 

> 

o 

r— t 
CO 



Oh 



1 1 


A 


B 

£«***« six* b 

•jooooooooo" 


Permissible Excess in Average Weights per Square Foot 

of Plates for Widths Given, Expressed in 

Percentages of Nominal Weights 


132 in. 

or 

over 


■WNiflfJHOOON 


120 to 

132 in., 

excl. 


> 14 H H PN 


108 to 

120in., 

excl. 


• • • ^ O N © lO 
• i-H CM i-H Oi 00 

»-H 


96 to 

108 in., 

excl. 


. • •<MOCT>00t^lOi/>*t" 

• i-H i-H 


84 to 

96 in., 

excl. 


in 
C«O0>t0N«W)tt 


72 to 

84 in., 

excl. 


in m 

1-1 F-t TH 


60 to 
72 in., 
excl. 


tNOQWNWW**cr)ro 

i— ( i-H 


48 to 

60 in., 

excl. 


m m m 


u 

Si 9 

Jg 00 


m m in m 
o\oot^*om-^-^-roco«M«N 


•a i 

11 


d 


a <• * * 

^BBBBBBBB S 



4 50} 



•HB= 



LANCASTER TH^lfM 115 IRON WORKS 







Ordered 

Weight, 

Lb. per Sq. Ft. 




1 

ir 

10 C 

t-i 4- 

5" 


! - 




1 

) LO lO 

-otNiot^omoo in 

»-Hr-(^Hi-((NCNrO'^- <U 

>OOOOOOOOn 

*-*J4J+J4J4-»4-»4-t+J V 

in in in q 
>i>*©cNint^©in©© 


§ | 

W u 

1 i 

bi) w 
■S-r <u 

> a 

> X 

2 « 
c P 

> .s 

< O 

G to 

1* 

t- o 
cc £! 

D 

s| 

•55 & 
s ° 

Q o 
£ o 


w 
«3 

.fl 
M 

<D 
E 

<L> 
X) 

(h 

o 

<H-1 

o 

CO 

E 

M 

CO 


132 in. 

or 

over 


japun 








cocococococococo 


J3AQ 








m m 


120 to 

132 in., 

excl. 


J3pu n 








cocococococococo 


J3AQ 








in m in 

oot-vommTj-Tf-co 


108 to 

120 in., 

excl. 


J3 P u n 






CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CO CN 


J3AQ 






m m in 


96 to 

108 in., 

excl. 


J9PU0 






COCOCOCOCOfOCOCNCN 


J3AQ 






m m m m 


84 to 
96 in., 
excl. 


japua 






m in m 

(OCOCOCOCOOJCMC^C^ 


J3AQ 






io lo m in m 
^omm^-^-cococMCM 


72 to 
84 in., 
excl. 


J3PUH 


CO 


CO 


m m m 

COCOCOCOCSrCMCSICMCSI 


J3AQ 


t-* 


lO 


io m m in in 
min^-Tj-cococ^cMCN 


60 to 
72 in., 

excl. 


Japu n 


CO 


ro 


in m in 


J3AQ 


<o 




to m mm 


48 to 
60 in., 

excl. 


japun 


CO 


CO 


m m m 


J3AQ 


to 


i-O 


m m mm 


u 
el — 

t-^ 00 


Japun 


CO 


CO 


u-> in in 


J3AQ 


lO 




m mm 






Ordered 

Weight, 
Lb. per Sq. Ft. 




in 

u 

S3 


u 
m 

o 

+-> 

1/5 




O 

c 

<M 

m 


m m 

cm in r>. © in © © (h 

H H H N N CO T <U 

+J +J +J 4J +J +J +J U 

mm g 

ONlONOiOOO 
t-li-li-l*-ICNCMCO , d- 



X 






O <U 
cfl 

W C 

£ - 

ft ft 



<«> 



LANCASTER TMklf IIS IRON WORKS 



Riveted Joints 

A. S. M. E. Code 
Formulae for Determining Joint Efficiencies 

T ■> the tensile strength of plate per square inch, in pounds, or 55,000 lb. 

S = the shearing strength of rivet material per square inch, in pounds, 
where subjected to single shear, or 44,000 lb. 
2*9 = the shearing strength of rivet material per square inch, in pounds, 
where subjected to double shear, or 88,000 lb. 

C = the crushing strength of plate per square inch, in pounds, the pro- 
jected area of contact between the plate and rivets being used, and 
95,000 lb. representing this value. 

P = the pitch of rivets, or a unit section length of joint, in inches. 

d = the driven diameter of rivets, or the diameter of rivet hole, in inches, 

t = the thickness of the plate, in inches. 
t\ — the thickness of butt straps, in inches. 

Single-riveted Lap Joint, Double-riveted Lap Joint, 

[P - d]tT \P - d]tT 

PtT PtT 

0.7854cf 2 S 2 X 0.7854d2S 

PtT PtT 

= tdC 2tdC 

PtT * PtT 

Triple-riveted Lap Joint, 

E ^\P ~ d]tT 



E = 
E = 



PtT 

3 X 0.7854c/2S 

PtT 
ZtdC 
PtT 



Double-riveted Butt Joint with Straps of Unequal Width, 

\P - d]tT 



E = 

E = 

E = 

E = 

E = 

E = 



PtT 

\P - 2d]tT -f 0.7854rf2s 

PtT 
\P - 2d]tT + ricTC 

PtT 
2 X 0.7854c?2 2 S + 0.7854e/2s 

PtT 
2tdC + tidC 

PtT 
2tdC + 0.7854tf2S 
PtT 

<52> 



LANCASTER MJBBSSMXa IRON WORKS 
•♦♦ a =^++- 

Riveted Joints (Continued) 

Triple-riveted Butt Joint with Straps of Unequal Width, 
\P - d)tT 



E = 

E = 

E - 

E = 

E = 

E = 



PtT 

\P - 2d]tT + 0.7854c? 2 S 

PtT 
\P - 2d]tT + tjdC 

PtT 
4 X Q.7854tf 2 2S + 0.7854tf 2 S 

PtT 
4tdC + tjdC 

PtT 
AtdC + 0.7854d 2 S 



PtT 

Quadruple-riveted Butt Joint with Straps of Unequal Width, 



E = 

E m 

E = 

E - 

E = 



PtT 

\P - 4tf]*r + 3 X 0.7854cf 2 S 

PtT 
\P - 4d\tT + ZtidC 

PtT 
8 X 0.7854tf 2 25 + 3 X 0.7854d 2 S 

PtT 
StdC + ZtidC 

PtT 
StdC + 3 X 0.7854t/ 2 S 



PtT 

Quintuple-riveted Butt Joint with Straps of Unequal Width, 

£ ^ [P - d]tT 



E = 

E = 

E = 

E m 

E = 



PtT 

\P - 8d]tT + 7 X 0.7854tf 2 S 

PtT 
\P - Sd]tT + 7t x dC 

PtT 
16 X 0.7854d 2 2S + 7 X 0.7854cf 2 S 

PtT 
16tdC + 7tidC 

PtT 
16tdC + 7 X 0.7854d 2 S 



PtT 

The true joint efficiency is the least of these values. 



LANCASTER TD^IflSlB IRON WORKS 



Shearing and Bearing Values of Rivets 
in Pounds 



:#♦• 



Size 
of 


Araa 

of 
Rivet, 
Square 
1 nch. 


UNIT STRESSES, POUNDS PER SQUARE INCH. 


Rivet, 


Shearing 


8,000 
16,000 


9,000 
18,000 


10,000 
20,000 


11,000 
22,000 


12,000 
24,000 


13,500 
27,000 


13,500 
30.000 


Inch. 


Bearing .... 






% 


.1104 


Single Shear 
Bearing, Inch. 

hi 

Double Shear 


880 

1130 
1500 

1770 


990 

1270 
1690 

1990 


1100 

1410 
1880 

2210 


1210 

1550 
2060 

2430 


1320 

1690 
2250 

2650 


1490 

1900 
2530 

2980 


1490 

2110 

2810 

2980 


V* 


.1963 


Single Shear 
Bearing, Inch. 

% 

Double Shear 


1570 
1500 

2500 
3000 

3140 


1770 

1690 
•"2256" 

2810 
3380 

3530 


1960 

1880 

™2506*' 

3130 

3750 

3930 


2160 

2060 
"2756" 

3440 
4130 

4320 


2360 
2250 

■"3'6oo- 

3750 
4500 

4710 


2650 
2530 

"mw 

4220 
5060 

5300 


2650 

2810 

3750 

4690 

""56W 

5300 


% 


.3068 


Single Shear 
Bearing, Inch. 
Vis 

g. 

Double Shear 


2450 

1880 

"SSflOT 

3130 

3750 

4380 

4910 


2760 

2110 

3520 
4220 
4920 

5520 


3070 
2340 

-3T3b"' 

3910 
4690 
5470 

6140 


3370 

2580 
•"3440" 
4300 
5160 
6020 

6750 


3680 
2810 

""Wm 

4690 
5630 
6560 

7360 


4140 

3160 

""4220" 

5270 

6330 

7380 

8280 


4140 

3520 

'"4690" 
5860 
7030 
8200 

8280 


3 /4 


.4418 


Single Shear 
Bearing, Inch. 
it 
Vi* 

ft 

Double Shear 


3530 
3000 

4500 
5250 
6000 
6750 

7070 


3980 

3380 
"422*6" 

5060 
5910 
6750 
7590 

7950 


4420 

3750 

"4690" 
5630 
6560 
7500 
8440 

8840 


4860 

4130 
""SW 
6190 
7220 
8250 
9280 

9720 


5300 

4500 
"5S3&" 
6750 
7880 
9000 
10130 

10600 


5960 
5060 

■"eW 

7590 

8860 

J0130 

11390 

11930 


5960 

5630 

'■"7*636* 

8440 

9840 

11250 

"12660 

11930 


% 


.6013 


Single Shear 
Bearing, Inch. 
Va 
Vis 

fj 

%• 

Double Shear 


4810 

3500 
4380 

"mm" 

6130 
7000 
7880 
8750 
'"963'd" 

9620 


5410 

3940 
4920 

"5910" 
6890 
7880 
8860 
9840 

"10830" 

10820 


6010 

4380 

5470 

"■■fisecr 

7660 

8750 

9840 

10940 

12030 

12030 


6610 

4810 
6020 

8420 

9630 

10830 

12030 

13230 

13230 


7220 

5250 

6560 
""78*80" 

9190 
10500 
11810 
13130 
14440 

14430 


8120 

5910 
7380 
"8860" 
10340 
11810 
13290 
14770 
16240 

16240 


8120 

6560 

""8*2*6u" 
9840 
11480 
13130 
14770 

"mw 

18050 
16240 



Bearing values given in italics are either smaller than single shear or larger than 
double shear. 



iM\ 



LANCASTER 



IRON WORKS 



=»♦• 



Shearing and Bearing Values of Rivets 
in Pounds 



Size 
of 

Rivet, 


Area 

of 

Rivet, 

Square 

Inch. 


UNIT 


STRESSES. POUNDS PER SQUARE INCH. 


Shearing 


8,000 


9,000 


10,000 


11,000 


12,000 


13,500 


13,500 


Inch. 


Bearing 


16,000 


18,000 


20,000 


22,000 


24,000 


27,000 


30,000 










Single Shear 
Bearing, Inch. 

V* 


6280 


7070 


7850 


8640 


9420 


10600 


10600 






4000 


4500 


5000 


5500 


6000 


6750 


7500 






H« 


5000 


5630 


6250 


6880 


7500 


8440 


9380 






* 


6000 


6750 


7500 


8250 


9000 


10130 


TISBCr 






7 /l6 


"7666* 


•"7886" 


-8756"' 


TOT 


•16566" 


"iiSiu" 


13130 


1 


.7854 


ft 


8000 


9000 


10000 


11000 


12000 


13500 


15000 






r 


9000 


10130 


11250 


12380 


13500 


15190 


16880 






10000 


11250 


12500 


13750 


15000 


16880 


18750 






»VU 


11000 


12380 


13750 


15130 


16500 


18560 


20630 






H 


12000 


13500 


15000 


16500 


18000 


20250 


"22500" 






Double Shear 


12570 


14140 


15710 


17280 


18850 


21210 


21210 






Single Shear 


7950 


8950 


9940 


10930 


11930 


13420 


13420 






Bearing, Inch. 




















V* 


4500 


5060 


5630 


6190 


6750 


7590 


8440 






Hi 


5630 


6330 


7030 


7730 


8440 


9490 


10550 






H 


6750 


7590 


8440 


9280 


10130 


11390 


12660 






Vi« 


7880 


8860 


9840 


10830 


11810 


13290 


"WW 






VI 


" m W8b" 


TdTSo" 


TOST 


"1238*6" 


"13566" 


"TOOT 


16880 


1% 


.9940 


He 


10130 


11390 


12660 


13920 


15190 


17090 


18980 




w 


11250 


12660 


14060 


15470 


16880 


18980 


21090 






»%• 


12380 


13920 


15470 


17020 


18560 


20880 


23200 






% 


13500 


15190 


16880 


■18560 


20250 


22780 


25310 






iy 16 


14630 


16450 


18280 


20110 


21940 


24680 


"27420" 






. % 


15750 


17720 


19690 


21660 


23630 


26580 


29530 






Double Shear 


15900 


17890 


19880 


21870 


23860 


26840 


26840 






Single Shear 


9820 


11040 


12270 


13500 


14730 


16570 


16570 






Bearing, Inch. 




















Vk 


5000 


5630 


6250 


6880 


7500 


8440 


9380 






Vis 


6250 


7030 


7810 


8590 


9380 


10550 


11720 






ft 


7500 


8440 


9380 


10310 


11250 


12660 


14060 






7 A« 


8750 


9840 


10940 


12030 


13130 


14770 


16410 






>£ 


"10W 


OTT 


imr 


•13750"' 


"15666" 


"iio88*6" 


•18756" 






H« 


11250 


12660 


14060 


15470 


16880 


18980 


21090 


1% 


1.2272 


% 


12500 


14060 


15630 


17190 


18750 


21090 


23440 




»%• 


13750 


15470 


17190 


18910 


20630 


23200 


25780 






y* 


15000 


16880 


18750 


20630 


22500 


25310 


28130 






*%• 


16250 


18280 


20310 


22340 


24380 


27420 


30470 






% 


17500 


19690 


21880 


24060 


26250 


29530 


32810 






*|U 


18750 


21090 


23440 


25780 


28130 


31640 


"fflW 






Double Shear 


19640 


22090 


24540 


27000 


29450 


33130 


33130 



Bearing values given in italics are either smaller than single shear or larger than 
double shear. 



(55> 



LANCASTER X^5liS IRON WORKS 



•HB= 



=#♦• 



Length of Rivets Required for Various Grips 
Including Amount Necessary to Form One Head 



K-- Length— *\ 



\*— Length--*' 



-Length--*-; 



u- -Length -* 




KGrip-H [*Grip->j j*--Grip->* *~Grip- 

LENGTHS, IN INCHES, TO FORM BUTTON HEADS. 



Grip, 


DIAMETER OF RIVET. INCH. 


Grip, DI 


AMETER OF RIVET, INCH. 


1 nch. 


*4 
IV2 


H 


% 


% 


1 


1% 


IV* 


Inch. a 


4 % 

y* ex 


1 

ex 


1V4 

ex 


iy4 


H 


1% 


1H 


2 


2H 






AX 6; 


ex 


% 


m 


m 


2 


2M 


2X 






4^ 6, 


4 ex 


ex 


ex 


ex 


H 


1*A 


2 * 


2H 


2J4 


m 






AX 6; 


■4 ex 


ex 


ex 


7 


% 


m 


2^8 


2^i 


2Ji 


2X 






AX 6; 


H 7 


7 


7 


7X 


i 


2 


2^ 


2H 


2X 


2X 


2X 


2X 


5 7 


7X 


7X 


7X 


7X 


1H 


•m 


2x 


2M 


-in 


2H 


2% 


3 


5X 7, 


H 7X 


7X 


7X 


7X 


ik 


2y 4 


2X 


2^8 


m 


'2% 


3 


3^8 


5X 7, 


X 7X 


7X 


7X 


7X 


m 


2H 


2H 


2^ 


2% 


3 


ZX 


ZX 


5X 7; 


^ 7X 


7X 


7X 


7X 


t'H 


2X 


2« 


2?i 


3 


ZX 


ZX 


ZX 


5X 7. 


y 2 7x 


7X 


7X 


7X 


m 


'1% 


2H 


3 


ZX 


zx 


ZX 


ZX 


5X 7; 


'4 7X 


7X 


7X 


8 


1% 


2Ji 


3 


»H 


zx 


zy* 


zy 2 


ZX 


5X 7; 


H 7X 


7X 


8 


ZX 


i% 


2K 


3^8 


3M 


ZX 


zy 2 


m 


Z'A 


5X 7, 


'4 8 


8 


ZX 


zx 


2 


3H 


ZX 


zx 


ZX 


w 


ZX 


4 


6 


. 8X 


zx 


zx 


ZX 


2M 


3^i 


3^ 


zx 


ZX 


ZX 


A 


4^8 


&x . 


. 8X 


ZX 


ZX 


ZX 


2*4 


3« 


3^ 


ZX 


ZX 


A 


AX 


AX 


ex ■ 


■ 8X 


ZX 


ZX 


ZX 


»H 


3^2 


Wi 


8J< 


4 


AX 


AX 


A% 


ex . 


■ ZX 


ZX 


zx 


zx 


2^ 


3^8 


m 


4 


ax 


AX 


AX 


AX 


ex . 


■ zx 


zx 


zx 


ZX 


2H 


3?4 


4 


AX 


AX 


AH 


AX 


AX 


ex ■ 


■ ZX 


ZX 


9 


9X 


2% 


8J< 


4H 


AX 


ax 


ax 


AH 


A% 


ex . 


■ zx 


9 


9X 


9X 


2K 


4 


4^8 


4^ 


AX 


AX 


AH 


AX 


e% ■ 


. 9 


9X 


QX 


$x 


3 


AX 


45* 


4?< 


A% 


AX 


5 


5X 


7 




SH 


9X 


9X 


3^8 


4^8 


4M 


4K 


5 


5 


zx- 


5X 


IX ■ 




9X 


9X 


9X 


ZX 


4^ 


4J| 


5 


&M 


5X 


ZX 


5X 


7X .. 




9X 


9X 


9X 


3^8 


4^8 


5 


&X 


5X 


5X 


5% 


5X 


7% .. 




9X 


9X 


9X 


3^2 


4M 


5H 


ax 


5X 


5% 


ZX 


5X 


7y 2 .. 




9X 


9H 


10 


3H 


4Ks 


sx 


5X 


5X 


&X 


ZX 


5X 


7X .. 




10 


10 


10V* 


3M 


5 


5% 


sy 2 


5% 


ZX 


5X 


5X 


7X •• 




wx 


io^r 


10 3 -* 


ZX 


5j/ 8 


5^2 


$X 


&K 


ZX 


ZX 


6 


7X .. 




WX 


10?* 


10J* 


A 




5« 


5% 


6 


6 


ex 


ex 


8 






mvo 


105/SJ 


4^8 




5Ji 


$% 


ex 


6X 


ex 


GX 


8X -. 






10^4 


MX 
10T* 


4*4 




6 


6 


ex 


ex 


ex 


6X 


8X •• 






lOS^ 


4H 




6H 


6^ 


ex 


6^8 


ex 


ex 


8X .. 






10J* 


11 



Amount in Inches to be subtracted from above Lengths to form Countersu nk Heads. 

y 2 \ y 2 \x\ x\ x\i \ix\ \ x\ x\ %\i \iy 8 



{S6> 



LANCASTER T^A&'&S IRON WORKS 



•♦48C 



a** 



Weights of Steel Rivets with Button Heads 
for 100 Rivets, in Pounds 



Length 


DIAMETER OF RIVET, 


INCHES 








Under Head, 
Inches. 


^ 


yi« 


5 /s 


»%• 


K 


*H« 


Vb 


1 


1^ 


m 


1 


10.0 


15.2 


18.3 


21.7 


26.6 












1M 


11.4 


16.8 


20.3 


24.5 


29.5 


37.0 


46 


60 






IH 


12.8 


18.4 


22.4 


27.3 


32.4 


40.2 


50 


65 


98 


133 


W 


14.2 


20.0 


24.4 


30.1 


35.3 


43.5 


54 


69 


104 


141 


2 


15.6 


21.6 


26,5 


32.9 


38.2 


47.0 


58 


74 


110 


149 


2H 


17.0 


23.2 


28.6 


35.7 


41.1 


50.3 


62 


80 


118 


157 


W2 


18.4 


24.8 


30.6 


38.5 


44.0 


53.5 


66 


86 


124 


165 


2H 


19.8 


26.4 


32.7 


41.3 


46.9 


56.8 


70 


92 


130 


173 


3 


21.2 


28.0 


34.7 


44.1 


49.8 


60.0 


74 


98 


137 


181 


2H 


22.6 


29.7 


36.8 


46.9 


52.7 


63.3 


78 


103 


144 


189 


W2 


24.0 


31.5 


38.9 


49.7 


55.6 


66.5 


82 


108 


151 


197 


W 


25.4 


33.3 


40.9 


52.5 


58.5 


69.8 


86 


113 


158 


205 


4 


26.8 


35.2 


43.0 


55.3 


61.4 


73.0 


90 


118 


165 


213 


4J4 


28.2 


36.9 


45.0 


5S.1 


64.3 


76.3 


94 


124 


172 


221 


m 


29.6 


38.6 


47.1 


60.9 


67.2 


79.5 


98 


130 


179 


229 


m 


31.0 


40.3 


49.2 


63.7 


70.1 


82.8 


102 


136 


186 


237 


5 


32.4 


42.0 


51.2 


66.5 


73.0 


86.0 


106 


142 


193 


245 


5H 


33.8 


43.7 


53.3 


69.2 


75.9 


89.3 


HO 


148 


200 


254 


BV 2 


35.2 


45.4 


55.3 


72.0 


78.8 


92.5 


114 


154 


206 


263 


&K 


36.6 


47.1 


57.4 


74.8 


81.7 


95.7 


118 


160 


212 


272 


6 


38,0 


48.8 


59.5 


77.6 


84.6 


99.0 


122 


166 


218 


281 


6H 


403 


52.0 


63.6 


83.3 


90.4 


105.5 


130 


177 


231 


297 


7 


43.6 


55.2 


67.7 


88.9 


96.2 


112.0 


138 


188 


245 


314 



WEIGHTS OF BUTTON HEADS AS MANUFACTURED, 
FOR 100 HEADS, IN POUNDS. 



Button Heads. 






DIAMETER OF 


*IVET, 


INCHES 








yz 


9is 


% 


»%• 


% 


»%• 


% 


1. 


ill 


1N 


Pounds 
per hundred. 


3.9 


6.0 


7.9 


11.3 


14.1 


17.7 


21.6 


31.3 


45.5 


63.6 



•(57} 



LANCASTER 



IA2SSEI 



IRON WORKS 



•MIC 



*♦■ 



Tensile Stress of Bolts 






Diameter 


Area of 


At 7,000 


At 10000 


At 12000 


At 15000 


At 20000 


of Bolt 


Bottom of 


Lbs. per 


Lbs. per 


Lbs. per 


Lbs. per 


Lbs. per 


in Ins. 


Thread 


Sq. In. 


Sq. In. 


Sq. In. 


Sq. In. 


Sq. In. 


X 


.125 


875 


1250 


1500 


1875 


2500 


Vs 


.196 


1372 


1960 


2350 


2940 


3920 


Vt 


.30 


2100 


3000 


3600 


4500 


6000 


X 


.42 


2940 


4200 


5040 


6300 


8400 


1 


.55 


3850 


5500 


6600 


8250 


11000 


IX 


.69 


4830 


6900 


8280 


10350 


13800 


IX 


.78 


5460 


7800 


9300 


11700 


15600 


m 


1.06 


7420 


10600 


12720 


15900 


21200 


m 


1.28 


8960 


12800 


15360 


19200 


25600 


1% 


1.53 


10710 


15300 


18360 


22950 


30600 


*% 

W 


1.76 


12320 


17600 


21120 


26400 


35200 


2.03 


14210 


20300 


24360 


30450 


40600 


2 


2.30 


16100 


23000 


27600 


34500 


46000 


2M 


3.12 


21840 


31200 


37440 


46800 


62400 


VA 


3.70 


25900 


37000 


44400 


55500 


74000 



The breaking strength of good American bolt iron is usually taken at 50000 
pounds per square inch, with an elongation of 15 percent before breaking. It 
should not set under a strain of less than 25000 pounds. The proof strain is 
20000 pounds per square inch and beyond this amount iron should never be 
strained in practice. 



Safe Load of Bolts 



Diameter of Bolt 


Safe Load 


Diameter of Bolt 


Safe Load 


in Inches 


in Pounds 


in Inches 


in Pounds 


X 


1000 


iH 


8050 


% 


1800 


m 


10000 


H 


2750 


m 


11800 


X 


3800 


i% 


15750 


i 


5000 


2 


20800 


IX 


6250 







{58} 



LANCASTER "ESeS US IRON WORKS 



=£♦+• 



Weights of Bolts with Square Heads and Nuts 
for 100 Bolts in Pounds 



Length 

Under Head/ 

Inches. 



1 

m 

2 

2H 
2V 2 

3 

3K 

4 
4^ 

5 
6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

12 
14 
16 
18 

20 



Per Inch 
Additional. 



DIAMETER OF BOLT, INCHES. 



2.6 
3.0 
3.3 
3.6 

4.0 
4.3 
4.6 
5.0 

5.3 
6.0 

6.7 
7.4 

8.1 
8.8 

9.5 
10.2 

10.9 
11.6 

12.3 



5 /l6 I 



I 



1.4 



4.7 
5.2 
5.8 
6.3 

6.8 
7.3 

7.8 
8.4 

8.9 
10.0 

11.1 
12.2 

13.3 
14.4 

15.4 
16.5 

17.6 
18.7 

19.8 



7.5 
8.3 

9.1 
9.8 

10.6 
11.4 
12.1 

12.9 

13.7 
15.1 

16.7 
18.2 

19.8 
21.4 

22.9 
24.5 

26.1 
27.6 



16.1 
17.5 
18.9 
20.3 

21.7 
23.1 
24.5 
25.9 

27.2 

29.8 

32.5 
35.3 

38.1 

40.9 

43.7 
46.5 

49.2 
52.0 



2.2 



3,1 



29.2 


54.8 


32.3 


60.1 


35.4 


65.7 


41.7 


76.8 




87.4 




9S.5 




109.6 




120.8 



5.6 



29.6 
31.4 
33.6 
35.8 

37.9 

40.1 
42.3 
44.4 

46.6 
50.6 

54.9 

59.3 

63.6 

68.0 

72.3 
76.7 

81.0 
85.3 

89.7 
98.0 
106.7 
124.1 
141.1 
158.5 
175.8 
193.2 



8.7 



47.2 
50.3 
52.9 
55.5 

58.7 
61.8 
64.9 
68.1 

71.2 

77.4 

83.7 
89.4 

95.7 

102.0 

108.2 
114.5 

120.7 
127.0 

133.2 
145.2 
157.8 

182.8 
207.8 
232.9 
257.9 
282.9 



72.7 

77.0 
80.6 
83.5 

87.8 

92.0 

96.3 

100.5 

104.8 
113.3 

121.8 

129.7 

138.2 

146.7 

155.3 

163.8 

172.3 

180.8 



12.5 



17.0 



126.7 
131.4 
137.0 
141.6 

147.2 
158.3 

169.4 

179.7 

190.8 

202.0 

213.1 

224.2 

235.3 
246.5 



189.3 


257.6 


205.7 


278.9 


222.7 


301.2 


256.8 


345.7 


290.2 


388.5 


324.3 


433.0 


358.3 


477.5 


392.4 


522.0 



22.3 



m 



180.4 
186.4 
193.4 
198.2 

205.3 

218.2 

232.3 
245.3 

259.4 
273.5 

287.5 
301.6 

315.7 
329.8 

343.9 
370.9 
399.1 
455.4 
510.6 
567.0 
623.3 
679.6 



28.2 



WEIGHTS OF NUTS AND BOLT HEADS, IN POUNDS, 
FOR ONE HEAD AND ONE NUT. 


DIAMETER OF BOLT. INCHES. 


V4 


s/ie 


3 /a 


*§ 


% 


3 /4 


% 


Square Head and Nut 


.0149 
.0129 


.0288 
.0251 


.0495 
.0430 


.116 

.101 


.225 

.194 


.367 

.318 


.584 


Hexagon Head and Nut 


.505 


DIAMETER OF BOLT. INCHES. 


1 


1H 


IK 


m 


1*4 


m 


2 


Square Head and Nut 


.874 
.755 


1.31 
1.13 


1.79 
1.54 


2.37 

2.05 


3.06 
2.64 


4.86 
4.19 


7.22 


Hexagon Head and Nut 


6.22 


Weight of Shank per Inch 


.223 


.282 


.348 


.421 


.501 


.682 


.890 



All weights are theoretical. 



{59} 



LANCASTER TJA 



>TTjri 



IRON WORKS 



•♦48= 



=£♦♦* 



o O 



•H 00 







ocNinooomnfO^NO'toi^o^fNOHO 

O0»00NlO*(flCNHOOOiM(»00NNC« 




C*1 

CI 


• • ■ .fo«3moONNOOvnrtoooo**N*m>n 

■ .tOWWHTl-OOK)(On©H(OHNmON* 

a\00NNmTf(NHHOOiC^»fl0tst^^«tD 

i-tr-t«Hi-liHi-tiHi-l^-<i-< 






ocMoiooQO'*o^-cMiO'«!fn^w>t-.^-i«ot%oo^» 

CMiHi-tiHi-li-li-1iHfH.H«-t 






■ ■ • • ■ NOOOWINHHHCOHCNlrtlflCllDTMDnHtON 

miDoiHinoiciooiONwoi^oiirtHoeiflNOi 

Q\ 00 t- t-« ^O wj if CO i-t »h o Ol 00 00 t*» t*« t- *o 10 io m 




J$J 


oj^t^^i-ooo^oooino*ooo«Nt^o\0'i-Tj-r«.mmoOfO 

*o ie t*» o\ ih m oo cm r- m tj- m oo h io ih vo cm oo un cm o> t*- 

- . . . . . • ■oovooc>.t-~ioifli/ifoeM.-(©cyicjiooooi>'t^«(Oi©ioin 

■ ■ ■ CM i-l r4 «H iH fH i-H iH iH i-« tH fH 




' M 


i/)CsrkD00t^i-iO'<l-C00000f0^-iOv^l->OCM^J-O\00O>rr)O> 

- - - t^cca\*-!TfC©CMk©i-*0\av>-H'^t^eMt^roC7v" , )<NO\t*»*d- 

■ ■ ■ > i00t , -C-.l0mu">'fr0'HOQ0\00CCt , «t-»i0^O*O»OU")i/} 

fHfHfHfHlHiHrHfHtHfHfHfH 






oooooo*ifl(N«ooioo»oooONOtoonoom 

oo^o>OH^NHino | o*ioiooTt-ooTro^fooN*N 

»h o\ oo oo t*« ^o m m **■ <*• cm i-i o eji Ch oo t- 1> i> \o io io »n »o io 

• • • ■ ■ .CMfHfHfHiHfHiHfHfHfHfHfHfH 






^ou^oooc^fo , ^-cyioocNPocsvoo<NCMoocyi^-cs( , ot>.Tj--H 

ooo>-i^-^Do^-oomocyiocMiDoir>oioroot^TfcNO 

CM tH fH fH i-l iH rH i-H .-1 »H fH iH i-t 




X 


• ■ • -OOCMOCOCC^OJTrCvl^-CMCMiCICMTrcMOO^-VDtl-lDrOrOVCIiHOOOO 

• • ■ •^■NHOHr0©01(nN<NNit*lOq0HCHN(0ON^(VCftN 

• . ■ .^HOaiOOt^^Om'*^-OOrOCMi-iOC7(OOOOt^t^^DlOlOiOu , 3iO'«J--<i- 

• • • .CMCMfHfHfHfHrHf-l,-lTHfHfHfH.-l 


en 
en 
| 




. . . .Hrt + oOM^moHNNoaONgoMiOHHinn«oomTi-^ 
. . . .^cM^^fOincocNiooiri^-«ooo\0(r)i^CMOO'^-ot^'^'--(c?vt^in 
- • ■ -oo^oot~-«inTtrfcnrr)CMCMOC?iOvoot>t>^OC)iOinioiOTj-^-^" 

. , . ,,M,_,_|fHfHlHfHfHfHfHfH,-<fH 


E 
B 

u 




■ • CTi *-* -*■ O 00 Q\ t>. OHO *fr 00 00 O *0 cm 00 O -<HO 00 ""> t- CO MIO fH 0» C\ O 

■ .ovomcM^csiTf^o^ooMOv^roro>£io\cneo^-ot^Tj-^HO»^o^-cn 

■ •Nomoo^«w**m(N(NHHOOiooNN«c*oiflinin**Ti-* 

■ .CMCMfHfHrHtHfHfHfHrHrH,HfHfHfH 


8 


r-\ 


■ ■ONNMfOOlOiHOOO«aiM<N^iOeMCJl^OO\Mi^MNTj-fO'» , W 

■ ■00^Mf^CMC0VO0'iCMt^^-l^OC^00t-~00'--<^-CTil0OI>-'^-i-l00*O , *CMO 

■ •oC7i00t>.kDm^-MC0CMCM 1 H 1 -HOCTi0000t--^0^0 , OU , 5miO^-^-'«4*^-Tj- 
. .cMfH—ifHfHfHfHfH.-lfHfHfHfHfH 




£ 


Nt^meoaoooovoTfooovoioooooit-^-Tfcomi-teooiOtcooo'Ot-ooeN 

OiHCMHHiN^NomejiTtoinHHPHOoinHNnooomnHOioo 
cs^o>«^vOin^rococMi-«^^ooO>Mt^t^\D«" , )*n»OTj-Ti-Ti--(j-foco 

CMeMfHfHfHfHfHf-lfHfHfHfHfHfHr-lf-t 




' M 


00^|->-(00'-tt~'CMOOOOO<-»^-ICO»-<CMmCTiCMlDt-tTfroe , >lOCOfOOO\i-«TfOO 

"too^HHHromaiNSNNncMflioooHCHNfooMrttoocJiMn 

^C^OO^^U^^roc^CM^»^OOOiO\OOI>-t*.^OVO»rtiOU , 3^ > Tj-TtttcOcOrO 
CMfHfHfHf-<fHfHfHfHfH»HtHfHf-l 






inO00CMCMU^^OlOfn^0^C>fHCMlOfHCMC7l00^00U^.HCMinCMfHesriO0 1 ITj- 

OiflHOOHtOCO^CH^OONCftOCNlOHNtrjON^NOOOO^W 

ocot>.ioin^irocMCM^oooa>oiccoot^o«inu^in^^Tf^(iococnco 






FHco^c^^^^^^^ u ^'- | '- < ^l"C?vc^int^.i-irocMioinoO'*eMCMioav^j-o 

^fHC7l00C^fH^^fHC>fH^Ma\l/}CM^r^e^^<r)e^lOrOfHC^^l^r0eMfH 
OOt^««^cococM^i-(OOOiC^OOOOOOt^©^^^^^^^cocorocoroco 

^H H fH fH fH fH fH fH fH fH fH 




X 


00t^r0^O>(O^DU^»HOl^^CTi^r0^^^MO\'-tOtOiOCMCM'4*00CMO\l>- 

rt00t>^00^^00MMr00>irtCMOtVOC0CMr^CMO\inr0O00lD^-CM^-iCTiC0 
t^in^C0CMCMt-tOO0>C^000000t>.t^«lD»OlO^^^^r0C0f0f0C0CNCM 




' « 

r-i\ 


tNinmvooOHina^oiflM»io(NoroN<NOom(NOiNinooHooots*o 

UlTfCOCStfH^OO>OlO>OOOOt^t^t^^VOlT)Ul^^^COCOCOCOCOCOCMCMCM 






cMCMOO^^^io^l"cyioo»-ir>.vor«.^^iDro'Ht^i-iOiCMOOt^oocsiocooo\C5Y 

ff)(N<NTJ-tNHinOiflHW<tHWWrONNN*OXlOfOHO»N©*fi 
^fOCM^OOOlO^OOOOt^t^t^^^^tOlOTfTr^rCC^COCOCOCMCSCMCMCM 






O^O^O^OO^^CO^rOCM^C^lOfO^C^Or^OO'«l-CMfOt^CMOO*DTl-Ti-ir) 
MCflO(«MOHlflHNnoN^H01NH©nai*DTKNO00Nin'*M<NH 
CS^^OC^WCOMt^t^C^^^^WUIlO^^fCOC^rOrOCOCMCMCMCMCMCMCM 




* 


iooocN^ac^^cot^Tj-inooMOC^c^oo^cMCMO-in^C)OTi-^HO\oooocyi^-( 
TMnoOHino*D<MOomNCJiMn(NoiflH»m(NooOMO'f(NHoaoi 

^OC^WOOOOt^t^ClVO^O^U^U^invn^^COCOCOCOCMCMCMCMCHCMCMrtrt 


c 


CO 

s 


Tj-VDCOOCMTHOOOOCM^-lOOOOCMTj-OlOCMOOTi-OlOCMCO'd-OtOeMOO^ 
MCS|CMCncOCOCOfO^^^^*^lrtl^VD«^^000^0>OO^CMCMCOrOTf- 






Oil G 

.go 



3 « 

-rl-9 



Si y 

| s 

|i 

> I 

o w 

■S3 



CG 
11 

11 



p "3 
« S 

II 

S c 

^3^ 



{60> 



lb 2 

U g 00 

C § ^ 

H'u o 

£ 1 
« I 

If 



LANCASTER jGo^JIS IRON WORKS 

•♦4fi Sfrv 



Formulae for Design of Heads Under Pressure 

Dished Heads 
A. S. M. E. Code for Unfired Pressure Vessels (Revised, 1929)* 

U-36. The thickness of a blank unstayed dished head with the pressure on 
the concave side, when it is a segment of a sphere shall be calculated by the 
following formula. 

_ 8.33 xPxL 
t " 2 x TS 
where t = thickness of plate, in. 

P = maximum allowable working pressure, lb. per sq. in. 
TS = tensile strength, lb. per sq. in. 
L = radius to which the head is dished, measured on the concave side of 
the head, in. 

Where two radii are used, the longer shall be taken as the value of L in the 
formula. 

When a dished head has a manhole or access opening, that exceeds 6 in. in 
any dimension, the thickness shall be increased by not less than 15 per cent of 
the required thickness for a blank head computed by the above formula, but in 
no case less than Y% m - additional thickness over a blank head. Where a dished 
head has a flanged opening supported by an attached flue, an increase in thick- 
ness over that for a blank head is not required. If more than one manhole is 
inserted in a head, the thickness of which is calculated by this rule, the mini- 
mum distance between the openings shall be not less than one-fourth of the 
outside diameter of the head. 

The radius to which the head is dished shall not be greater than the diameter 
of the shell to which the head is attached. 

Where the radius L to which the head is dished is less than 80 per cent of the 
diameter of the shell the thickness of a head with a manhole opening shall be at 
least that found by making L equal to 80 per cent of the diameter of the shell. 
This thickness shall be the minimum thickness of a head with a manhole opening 
for any form of head. 

A blank head of a semi-elliptical form in which the minor axis of the ellipse 
is at least one-half the diameter of the shell shall be made at least as thick, as 
the required thickness of a seamless shell of the same diameter. If a flanged-in 
manhole, which meets the code requirements, is placed in an elliptical head the 
thickness shall be the same as for an ordinary dished head with a radius equal 
to 0,8 the diameter of the shell and with the added thickness for the manhole. 

The diameter of the shell to be used in applying these rules shall be the inner 
diameter of the shell for a head fitted to the inside of the shell, and the outer 
diameter of the shell for a head fitted to the outside of the shell. 

Unstayed dished heads with the pressure on the convex side shall have a 
maximum allowable working pressure equal to 60 per cent of that for heads of 
the same dimensions with the pressure on the concave side. 

*A. S. M. E. Code complies with Pennsylvania regulations and those 
of other States. 

-f 61 > 



LANCASTER T^klfMB IRON WORKS 

If a nozzle type manhole which meets the code requirements is placed on a 
elliptical head, the thickness of the head shall be the same as for an ordinary 
elliptical head providing, in the case of saddle type riveted flanged manholes, 
the provisions of Par. U-56 are complied with. In the case of nozzle-type man- 
holes forge-welded to the head, a reinforcing collar of the thickness required in 
Par. U-56 shall be drawn simultaneously with the drawing of the flange in 
the head. 

U 37. When dished heads are of a less thickness than called for by Par, U-36 
they shall be stayed as flat surfaces, no allowance being made in such staying 
for the holding power due to the spherical form unless all of the following con- 
ditions are met: 

a That they be at least two-thirds as thick as called for by the rules for 
unstayed dished heads. 

b That they be at least J4 in. thick. 

c That through stays be used attached to the dished head by outside and 
inside nuts. 

d That the maximum allowable working pressure shall not exceed that 
calculated by the rules for an unstayed dished head plus the pressure cor- 
responding to the strength of the stays or braces secured by the formula for 
braced or stayed surfaces given in Par. U-40 using 70 for the value of C. 

If a dished head is formed with a flattened spot or surface, the diameter of 
the flat spot shall not exceed that allowable for flat heads as given by the 
formula in Par. U-36. 

Formulae for Design of Shells Under Pressure 

A.S.M.E. Code for Unfired Pressure Vessels (Revised 1929) 

U-17. For all pressure vessels the minimum thicknesses of shell plates, 
heads and dome plates after flanging shall be as follows: 
When the Diameter of Shell is : 

16 in. and under Over 36 in. to 54 in. 

Y% in. . % in. 

Over 16 in. to 24 in., Over 54 in. to 72 in. 

% in. % in. 

Over 24 in. to 36 in., Over 72 in. % 

% in. y 2 in. 

except that for riveted construction the minimum thickness shall be Jjj in. 

U-20. For Internal Pressure. The maximum allowable working pressure 
on the shell of a pressure vessel shall be determined by the strength of the 
weakest course, computed from the thickness of the plate, the efficiency of the 
longitudinal joint, the inside diameter of the course, and the maximum allow- 
able unit working stress. 

— — = maximum allowable working pressure, lb. per sq. in. 

where 

S m maximum allowable unit working stress in lb. per sq. in. 

11,000 lb. per sq. in. for steel plate stamped 55,000 lb. per sq. in., 
10,000 lb. per sq. in. for steel plate stamped less than 55,000 lb. 
per sq. in., and for material used in seamless shells, one-fifth of the 
minimum of the specified range of the tensile strength of the 
material. 

4 62* 



LANCASTER T«H1IS IRON WORKS 



t = minimum thickness of shell plates in weakest course, in. 

E = efficiency of riveted longitudinal joint. 

R = inside radius of the weakest course of the shell, in., provided the 
thickness of the shell does not exceed 10 per cent of the radius. If 
the thickness is over 10 per cent of the radius, the outer radius 
shall be used. 

Note: When the safe working pressure for welded or brazed vessels is to be 
determined, E will be omitted from the formula and the values for S in Pars. 
U-68, U-82, or U-94 will be substituted for the values given above. For seamless 
shells, E equals 100 per cent. 

Flat Steel Rectangular Plates 
To Find Thickness of Plate Required 

Pressure given — Based on Grashof's Formula 



0.62 \l ( 



iWxLxl 



VS(L2 X 12) 

P = Load in lbs. per sq. in. 
W = Total load in pounds 
L = Long span of distance between supports in inches 

1 = Short span of distance between supports in inches 
S = Fiber stress of steel in lbs. per sq. in. 
t = Thickness of plate in inches 

Circular Flat Plates 
To Find Thickness of Plate Required 
Use same notation given for rectangular plates 
Based on Reuleaux f s Formulae 

t = 0.46 Vf 

These formulae are for plates firmly secured all around the edges, with the load 
uniformly distributed over the unsupported area. 

Unit Tensile Stress on Hollow Cylindrical 
Tank Walls 

Based on Boyd's Formula 
Girth Seam 

4t 
Longitudinal Seam 

2t 
S = Tensile stress in lbs. per sq. in. 
P = Working Pressure in lbs. per sq. in. 
D = Dia. of tank in inches 
t = Thickness of tank shell in inches 

<63> 



LANCASTER 



AtrUL 9LATC COMSTSuaiOKHfl 



IRON WORKS 



•♦«= 



=©>♦• 



Shells for Pressure Vessels 

Commonwealth of Massachusetts 
Department of Public Safety 
(1929 Air Tank Regulations) 



To determine maximum allowable pressure. 

1. The maximum pressure to be allowed on a steel or wrought-iron shell or 
drum of a tank shall be determined from the minimum thickness of the shell 
plates, the lowest tensile strength stamped on the plates by the plate manu- 
facturer, the efficiency of the longitudinal joint, the inside diameter of the out- 
side course, and a factor of safety of not less than five (5), the formula being: 



T.S. X t X % 
RXF.S. 



= maximum allowable working pressure per square inch, in 
pounds. 



T. S. = tensile strength of shell plates, in pounds. 

t = minimum thickness of shell plates, in inches. 

% = efficiency of longitudinal joint or ligament between tube 
holes, whichever is the least. 

R = radius = one-half (>£) the inside diameter of the outside 
course of the shell or drum. 

F. S. — 5, the lowest factor of safety allowed on tanks installed after 
June 9, 1914. 



Thickness of shell plates. 

7. The minimum thickness of plates used in the construction of a tank shall 
be one-fourth (}/Q inch. 



8. The minimum thickness of shell plates shall be as follows: 



When the Diameter of Shell is — 


36" or Under 


Over 36" to 54" 
Inclusive 


Over 54" to 72" 
Inclusive 


Over 72" 


w 


w 


«• 


l A" 



{64> 



LANCASTER TMklflfS 



IRON WORKS 



:Sf+- 



Dished Heads for Pressure Vessels 

Commonwealth of Massachusetts 
Department of Public Safety 
(1929 Air Tank Regulations) 



Convex Head, curved outward from the Shell 

convex he 

8J^RP 



12. The minimum thickness of a convex head for riveted or forge welded 
shells shall be: 



t = 

a 

except that the least thickness shall be three-eighths inch (%") on tanks twenty- 
inches (20") in diameter or larger, and five-sixteenths inch {%") on tanks of 
less than twenty inches (20") diameter. 

The minimum thickness of a convex head for seamless cylinders shall be: 

= 5PR 
S 

except that the least thickness shall be one-quarter inch i}/i n ). 

Concave Head, curved inward to the Shell 

The minimum thickness of a concave head shall be: 

ti m 1.67 t 

where t = thickness, in inches, of a convex head. 

P = working pressure, in pounds per square inch, for which the tank is 
designed. 

R = radius, in inches = 3^ the inside diameter of the outside course of 
the shell. 

S = tensile strength of the shell plates, in pounds per square inch, 
ti = thickness of a concave head, in inches. 

Convex and concave heads shall be dished to a radius equal to or less than 
the diameter of the shell, and shall be true portions of spheres. 

The flanging of convex and concave heads shall be carefully performed, and 
at the proper temperature; and if more than one heat is required, the head shall 
be annealed. The least radius of the flange curve shall be three (3) times the 
thickness of the head, and shall be measured on the concave side of head. 

13. When a convex or concave head has a manhole opening, the thickness as 
found by the formula in paragraph 1 2 of this section shall be increased by not 
less than one eighth (}/§) inch. 

14. When a convex or concave head has a manhole opening, the flange shall 
be turned inward, and to a depth of not less than three (3) times the thickness 
of the head. 

{65> 



LANCASTER 



IRON WORKS 



•♦*= 



=£♦♦• 



Decimals of a Foot for Inches and 
Fractions of an Inch 



Inch 


0* 


l* 


2" 


3* 


4' 


5* 


6* 


V 


8' 


9' 


10' 


11' 








.0833 


.1667 


.2500 


.3333 


.4166 


.5000 


.5833 


.6667 


.7500 


.8333 


.9166 


y%a 


.0013 


.0846 


.1680 


.2513 


.3346 


.4179 


.5013 


.5846 


.6680 


.7513 


.8346 


.9179 


H2 


.0026 


.0859 


.1693 


.2526 


.3359 


.4192 


.5026 


.5859 


.6693 


.7526 


.8359 


.9192 


%4. 


.0039 


.0872 


.1706 


.2539 


.3372 


.4205 


.5039 


.5872 


.6706 


.7539 


.8372 


.9205 


He 


.0052 


.0885 


.1719 


.2552 


.3385 


.4219 


.5052 


.5885 


.6719 


.7552 


.8385 


.9218 


%4. 


.0065 


.0898 


.1732 


.2565 


.3398 


.4232 


.5065 


.5898 


.6732 


.7565 


.8398 


.9231 


Ha 


.0078 


.0911 


.1745 


.2578 


.3411 


.4245 


.5078 


.5911 


.6745 


.7578 


.8411 


.9244 


H* 


.0091 


.0924 


.1758 


.2591 


.3424 


.4258 


.5091 


.5924 


.6752 


.7591 


.8424 


.9257 


Vs 


.0104 


.0937 


.1771 


.2604 


.3437 


.4271 


.5104 


.5937 


.6771 


.7604 


.8437 


.9270 


Ha 


.0117 


.0950 


.1784 


.2617 


.3450 


.4284 


.5117 


.5950 


.6784 


.7617 


.8450 


.9283 


b Ai 


.0130 


.0963 


.1797 


.2630 


.3463 


.4297 


.5130 


.5963 


.6797 


.7630 


.8463 


.9296 


1 H4. 


.0143 


.0977 


.1810 


.2643 


.3476 


.4310 


.5143 


.5976 


.6810 


.7643 


.8476 


.9309 


H% 


.0156 


.0990 


.1823 


.2656 


.3489 


.4323 


.5156 


.5989 


.6823 


.7656 


.8489 


.9322 


xz Aa 


.0169 


.1003 


.1836 


.2669 


.3502 


.4336 


.5169 


.6002 


.6836 


.7669 


.8502 


-9335 


Hi 


.0182 


.1016 


.1849 


.2682 


.3515 


.4349 


.5182 


.6015 


.6849 


.7682 


.8515 


-9348 


x Ha 


.0195 


.1029 


.1862 


.2695 


.3528 


.4362 


.5195 


.6028 


.6862 


.7695 


.8528 


.9361 


H 


.0208 


.1042 


.1875 


.2708 


.3541 


.4375 


.5208 


.6041 


.6875 


.7708 


.8541 


.9374 


xl At 


.0221 


.1055 


.1888 


.2721 


.3554 


.4388 


.5221 


.6054 


.6888 


.7721 


.8554 


.9387 


M* 


.0234 


.1068 


.1901 


.2734 


.3567 


.4401 


.5234 


.6067 


.6901 


.7734 


.8567 


.9400 


4* 


.0247 


.1081 


.1914 


.2747 


.3581 


.4414 


.5247 


.6080 


.6914 


.7747 


.8580 


.9413 


J<* 


.0260 


.1094 


.1927 


.2760 


.3594 


.4427 


.5260 


.6093 


.6927 


.7760 


.8593 


.9426 


V&* 


.0273 


.1107 


.1940 


.2773 


.3607 


.4440 


.5273 


.6106 


.6940 


.7773 


.8606 


.9440 


M* 


.0286 


.1120 


.1953 


.2786 


.3620 


.4453 


.5286 


.6119 


.6953 


.7786 


.8619 


.9453 


2 %4 


.0299 


.1133 


.1966 


.2799 


.3633 


.4466 


.5299 


.6132 


.6966 


.7799 


.8632 


.9466 


n «% 


.0312 


.1146 


.1979 


.2812 


.3646 


.4479 


.5312 


.6145 


.6979 


.7812 


.8645 


.9479 


2 %4 


.0325 


.1159 


.1992 


.2825 


.3659 


.4492 


.5325 


.6158 


.6992 


.7825 


.8658 


.9492 


lm 


.0339 


.1172 


.2005 


.2838 


.3672 


.4505 


.5338 


.6171 


.7005 


.7838 


.8671 


.9505 


27 & 


.0352 


.1185 


.2018 


.2851 


.3685 


.4518 


.5351 


.6185 


.7018 


.7851 


.8684 


.9518 


.n« 


.0365 


.1198 


.2031 


.2864 


.3698 


.4531 


.5364 


.6198 


.7031 


.7864 


.8697 


.9531 


2 %4 


.0378 


.1211 


.2044 


.2877 


.3711 


.4544 


.5377 


.6211 


.7044 


.7877 


.8710 


.9544 


\¥** 


.0391 


.1224 


.2057 


.2890 


.3724 


.4557 


.5390 


.6224 


.7057 


.7890 


.8723 


.9557 


•% 


.0404 


.1237 


.2070 


.2903 


.3737 


.4570 


.5403 


.6237 


.7070 


.7903 


.8736 


.9570 


„y* 


.0417 


.1250 


.2083 


.2916 


.3750 


.4583 


.5416 


.6250 


.7083 


.7916 


.8749 


.9583 


Ji* 


.0430 


.1263 


.2096 


.2930 


.3763 


.4596 


.5429 


.6263 


.7096 


.7929 


.8762 


.9596 


\%2 


.0443 


.1276 


.2109 


.2943 


.3776 


.4609 


.5442 


.6276 


.7109 


.7942 


.8775 


.9609 


6* 


.0456 


.1289 


.2122 


.2956 


.3789 


.4622 


.5455 


.6289 


.7122 


.7955 


.8789 


.9622 


%6 


.0469 


.1302 


.2135 


.2969 


.3802 


.4635 


.5468 


.6302 


.7135 


.7968 


.8802 


.9635 


% V*4 


.0482 


.1315 


.2148 


.2982 


.3815 


.4648 


.5481 


.6315 


.7148 


.7981 


.8815 


.9648 


X %2 


.0495 


.1328 


.2161 


.2995 


.3828 


.4661 


.5494 


.6328 


.7161 


.7994 


.8828 


.9661 


3 %4 


.0508 


.1341 


.2174 


.3008 


.3841 


.4674 


.5507 


.6341 


.7174 


.8007 


.8841 


.9674 


% 


.0521 


.1354 


.2187 


.3021 


.3854 


.4687 


.5520 


.6354 


.7187 


.8020 


.8854 


.9687 


a Ua 


.0534 


.1367 


.2200 


.3034 


.3867 


.4700 


.5534 


.6367 


.7200 


.8033 


.8867 


.9700 


2 %2 


.0547 


.1380 


.2213 


.3047 


.3880 


.4713 


.5547 


.6380 


.7213 


.8046 


.8880 


.9713 


*%4 


.0560 


.1393 


.2226 


.3060 


.3893 


.4726 


.5560 


.6393 


.7226 


.8059 


.8893 


.9726 


1 He 


.0573 


.1406 


.2239 


.3073 


.3906 


.4739 


.5573 


.6406 


.7239 


.8072 


.8906 


.9739 


4 %4 


.0586 


.1419 


.2252 


.3086 


.3919 


.4752 


.5586 


.6419 


.7252 


.8085 


.8919 


.9752 


2 H2 


.0599 


.1432 


.2265 


.3099 


.3932 


.4765 


.5599 


.6432 


.7265 


.8098 


.8932 


.9765 


4 %4 


.0612 


.1445 


.2279 


.3112 


.3945 


.4778 


.6612 


.6445 


.7278 


.8111 


.8945 


.9778 


% 


.0625 


.1458 


.2292 


.3125 


.3958 


.4791 


.5625 


.6458 


.7292 


.8124 


.8958 


.9791 


*%4 


.0638 


.1471 


.2305 


.3138 


.3971 


.4804 


.5638 


.6471 


.7304 


.8138 


.8971 


.9804 


2 %2 


.0651 


.1484 


.2318 


.3151 


.3984 


.4817 


.5651 


.6484 


.7317 


.8151 


.8984 


.9817 


*V*4 


.0664 


.1497 


.2331 


.3164 


.3997 


.4830 


.5664 


.6497 


.7330 


.8164 


.8997 


.9830 


1 He 


.0677 


.1510 


.2344 


.3177 


.4010 


.4843 


.5677 


.6510 


.7343 


.8177 


.9010 


.9843 


5 H* 


.0690 


.1523 


.2357 


.3190 


.4023 


.4856 


.5690 


.6523 


.7356 


.8190 


.9023 


.9856 


v& 


.0703 


.1536 


.2370 


.3203 


.4036 


.4869 


.5703 


.6536 


.7369 


.8203 


.9036 


.9869 


h %4 


.0716 


.1549 


.2383 


.3216 


.4049 


.4883 


.5716 


.6549 


.7382 


.8216 


.9049 


.9882 


5 7/ K 


.0729 


.1562 


.2396 


.3229 


.4062 


.4896 


.5729 


.6562 


.7395 


.8229 


.9062 


.9895 


h %4 


.0742 


.1575 


.2409 


.3242 


.4075 


.4909 


.5742 


.6575 


.7408 


.8242 


.9075 


.9908 


2 %2 


.0755 


.1588 


.2422 


.3255 


.4088 


.4922 


.5755 


.6588 


.7421 


.8255 


.9089 


.9921 


V6 4 - 


.0768 


.1601 


.2435 


.3268 


.4101 


.4935 


.5768 


.6601 


.7434 


.8268 


.9102 


.9934 


l& 


.0781 


.1614 


.2448 


.3281 


.4114 


.4948 


.5781 


.6614 


.7447 


.8281 


.9114 


.9947 


S 4 


.0794 


.1628 


.2461 


.3294 


.4127 


.4961 


.5794 


.6227 


.7460 


.8294 


.9127 


.9960 


l¥** 


.0807 


.1641 


.2474 


.3307 


.4140 


.4974 


.5807 


.6640 


.7473 


.8307 


.9140 


.9973 


% %4 


.0820 


.1654 


.2487 


.3320 


.4153 


.4987 


.5820 


.6653 


.7487 


.8320 


.9153 


.9986 



{66} 



LANCASTER 



IRON WORKS 



•♦«= 



=g++- 



Bunkers, Hoppers and Bins 

Many types of Suspended Bunkers or Bins of all kinds are used wherever 
various materials are stored or handled. 

It is only necessary to indicate to us your general storage requirements, space 
needed and working conditions. Our Engineers co-operate with you in designing 
such structures. We will fabricate and erect anywhere and under all conditions. 





Capacities of Suspension Bins 

The Suspension Bunker, designed 
with a cross-section such that tension is 
the only stress produced in the enve- 
lope, is a very economical type, since 
stiffeners are required only on end or 
interior bulk-heads and on the girders 
which support the bag bottom. 

For any given values of width B, and 
depth D, regardless of the weight of 
contained material or the ratio of B to 
D, a very close approximation of the 
correct tension curve is given by the 
construction shown in the accompany- 
ing diagram. Locate "O" on the center- 
line of the bunker at a distance lJ^D 
below the top, MN. Draw the lines MO 
and NO. Locate P on the center-line at 
the desired depth, D. Draw a circular 
arc tangent to MO and NO, and passing through P. The outline MPN is close 
enough to the ideal tension-curve for detailed design as well as for estimating. 
The capacity below the line MN, in cubic feet per foot of length is 

Capacity per foot of length in tons of coal at 50 pounds per cubic foot is 

^ BD 

T = 

1 64 

For bunkers carrying a surcharge, use 30° slopes from M and N to deter- 
mine maximum loading height "H" so as to prevent over-flow, and use 35° 
slopes from the peak so located, to calculate storage capacity, which will be 




% B'D' + surcharge volume, orT' = 



B'D ' 

64 



+ surcharge tonnage. 



In figuring the surcharge, loss due to end slopes and to cross-valleys between 
load points must be considered. 

<67> 



LANCASTER T^ISIsS IRON WORKS 

Stacks 

Our long experience in the design and manufacture of 
Stacks of all kinds, enables us to properly fabricate and 
erect any type or size, either self-supporting or guyed 
construction. 

When sending inquiries for Stacks, all the information 
possible to secure should be furnished, such as horse- 
power of boilers, flue sizes or openings in boilers, height 
and style of foundation, wind loads if unusual and all 
local information available. 

Our Engineering Department is at your disposal. 

Guyed Steel Stacks 
Recommended Thicknesses: 



iameter 


Maximum 


Minimum 


30" 


No. 8 Ga. 


No. 10 Ga, 


36" 


w 


No. 10 Ga. 


42" 


w 


No. 10 Ga. 


48" 


h" 


No. 8Ga. 


54" 


w 


w 


60" 


w 


%' 



Jig" is often added to above thicknesses for corrosion. 

Guys: 

Stacks up to 60' or 70' high, usually require 

1— set 4-way guys. 
Stacks over 70' high, usually require 

2 — sets 4-way guys. 
Stacks over 125' high, usually require 

3 — sets 4-way guys. 
A single set of guys is usually attached to stack about 
Yz way down from top. When 2 sets of guys are used, it 
is usual practice to locate first set about % height of 
stack and the second set about % height of stack. 
When 3 sets of guys are used, the first set is placed at 
H - 12 ft. and the second set at % H - 12 ft. and the 
third set at 3^ H — 12 ft. In this case H is the height in 
feet of Stack. 

Self-Supporting Steel Stacks 

Diameter of Cone Bottom usually l A larger in diam- 
eter than straight stack section. 

Height of Cone should be approximately 34 entire 
height of Stack. 

The Conical Section of a well-designed Self-Support- 
ing Stack should be made so that the apex of the cone 
would be at the top of the Stack. 

See table on following page for recommended speci- 
fications on Self-Supporting Stacks. 

{68} 



LANCASTER 



TANKS 



•MH= 



IRON WORKS 



=SH- 







si 


5 


o o o o o 
O oo ^o r- CTi 


o o o o o 

o o o o 

01 O t O M 


© © © © © 
© © © o © 
Ti- \o co m co 


© © o © © 
o o o o o 
m oo co t- *o 




o w m >n O 
cm co co in oo 


U ffi N m IO 

O H 00 « o 

r-t r-l r"l l~< CM 


co m t- oo © 

n to oi M m 

rl CM n CM CM 


t^ cm m CO CM 

m io n n T 

CO CM CO CO Tf 




,2 *3 'c 

fei ° 


1H8»H 




o o o o o 

n « * * * 


in o m o m 
m m m »o « 


in in © m m 

io n io io m 


o o o o o 
IO N s to >o 




'UIBIQ 


d 


© 
o> ^ »-i t*« ^t- 

1 1 [ 1 

m e » a o 


m co * ■* en 

1 1 1 1 1 
n m m io io 


00 CO « 00 *o 

o» Oi O Ov © 

r4 rl CM rH CM 


o o c * o 
1 1 1 1 1 
o m co *o m 

CM CM CM CM CM 




CO 


«a»BId 


d 




* 








Wipf! 


£ 




m 










sa^eta 


d 




* 


a 


35 




4q8i3 H 


£ 




m 


© 


m 






sa;Bid 


d 


* 


J*** ht 


* 


£ « 




*HS»H 


£ 


3 


o m o o 

IO U (N O 


m 

CM 


m © 
cm m 




d 

si 

m 


sa^BU 


d 


^^^^ 


&r* ♦£:*;* 


^ ^ 


^ * £ 




*MSPH 


£ 


m o in o 

ij- ifl m n 


m in o O m 

N W N O M 


m © m 

CM Tf Tf 


in © © 

CM CO 0\ 




g 

T3-2 

S| 

CO 


saiBid 


d 


^^^^ 


^ ^ ^ ^ ^ 


^ »«■ 


^^^ ^ 




*u8pH 


£ 


o o o o o 

^ (N (N (N N 


o, o o m o 

CM CM CM CM CM 


© © mm 

iH CM CM CM 


mom m 
cm m cm cm 




■1 


s^eid 


d 

hi 


-H\ *^ u^ tf^ (rfS 


^^^^ 


^rs^y? 


sa \«i nn \» \« 

»" n\ h\ m\ A 




=R8«H 


£ 


m m m o o 

,-, r4 ri CM CM 


o o o o o 

CM CM CM CM <N 


in © © in © 

CM CM *f CM CO 


o a> m a u-y 

CM CO CM o\ CM 




Bottom 

Section 

Including 

Flare 


saiBid 


d 

hi 


^^^ 


^ S» « ^ ■ X 


* r* £ :£ « 


^^^^^ 




m»»H 


£ 


m m o m m 

* * * ui m 


m o o © m 

hi c*" oo oo oo 


© in m in in 

o nco com 


o o o © © 

(O N MO (O 




1| 

y S 


•UIBIQ 


d 


\«J S&> \00 ^30 N« 

"^ t-\ «\ t-\ -<\ 

1H »H »H rl CM 


CM CM CM CM CM 


^rf^r** 

rl CM rl CM CM 


CM tH CM fl CM 




jaqum^j 




* * * 00 o 

rt iH CM rl CM 


* (O O N o 

CM CM CM CO CO 


© \D CM I© CM 


00 © ^" Tj- 00 

co m ^j- m Ti- 




J3MOJ 




00 M * 00 N 
# CO CO i-t CM 

to V Ol t ©^ 

rl CM 


h co m o n 
n t m cj h 

NT Wf) <6 

cm" co co in in 


© © © © 00 
9-4 *4 ♦ # *| 

W F* <r C0_ rl 

N oo co a o 


ll, 105 
12,894 
14,123 
15,980 
17,505 






*qS»H 


£ 


o m m o m 
© cm cm in t*« 


o o o m © 
o © m cm in 

CM CM CM CM CM 


m m m m © 

N N N N « 
CM CM CM CM CM 


© © © © © 
o m o m o 

CO CM CO CM CO 






•UIBIQ 


1 fc 


* m w s od 


o> o © CM CM 


* T mifl io 


iO 00 00 o o 

HHH WN 

i 



4 69 > 



LANCASTER Xdfe&SlS IRON WORKS 

H i -m+ 

Stainless Steel 

Heat and Corrosion-Resistant Alloy Tank Construction 




First unit of a number of Nitric Acid Absorption Towers 8 ft. by 43 
ft., used in making nitric acid from ammonia. High Chrome Alloy 

throughout, including fittings. 
Equipment for this plant fabricated and erected by Lancaster Iron 

Wor\s. 

Chrome Alloy fabrication of Pressure Vessels, Stills, Retorts, Columns, Vats, 
Acid Storage Tanks, etc., is a Lancaster specialty. 

The demands of the process industries for high grade equipment to resist 
corrosion and frequently to operate under high temperatures and high pres- 
sure or vacuum, are well known in the Lancaster organization. We have in our 
shops, skilled workmen, trained to fabricate equipment made of various chro- 
mium and other alloys and we can reduce your ultimate cost of equipment and 
operating difficulties from Heat, Pressure and Corrosion by combining our 
fabricating experience with your own general design. 

The terms "Stainless Steel" and "Rustless Steel" are in many cases mis- 
nomers and should be better termed "Corrosion and Rust Resistant." 

The Iron-Carbon-Chromium-Stainless Steel made its first appearance 
through the cutlery industry and under the ordinary usages of that service, the 
material is both rustless and stainless, but not under all conditions. 

"Stainless Steel" as first made in the United States was known only in the 
following type analysis: 

Carbon .30% 

Chromium 13.00% 
Iron Balance 

Its use was limited largely to cutlery. Since that time many investigators 
have been at work on the corrosion-resisting steels and we have on hand 
today many modifications of the original analysis. 

To obtain an understanding of the fundamental principles governing corro- 
sion-resisting steels, it should first be thoroughly understood that iron is soluble 
in water and, secondly, that iron combined with carbon is not only soluble in 

{70} 



LANCASTER JLXSSEBS1 IRON WORKS 



Stainless Steel — Continued 

water and, therefore, rusts like iron, but that the corrosion is much more rapid, 
due to the galvanic action between the iron itself and the carbides of iron. This 
creates selective corrosion and pitting. For this reason iron of the purest vari- 
eties, under corrosive conditions, has always withstood such corrosive action 
better than steel. 

To obtain a corrosive-resistant iron, therefore, it is necessary to introduce 
some alloy, or alloys, to iron which will first render it insoluble, and then, if 
there be carbides present, prevent, if possible, galvanic action from setting up 
selective corrosion or pitting. 

Brearley apparently covered in his patent the range of chromium between 
9 and 16 per cent, knowing that heat treatment was essential to produce homo- 
geneity, and realizing that over 16 per cent chromium additions rendered the 
material immune to heat treatment in the sense of hardening. Since that time, 
however, the higher chromium alloys have been further developed and, even 
where free carbides exist, the material is found to be extremely resistant to 
corrosive attack. 

With the knowledge, therefore, that certain percentages of chromium in 
combination with iron render the resultant iron-chromium insoluble in water 
and many other solutions, and that the carbides present in such alloys, with 
less than 16 per cent chromium, can be diffused throughout the mass (i.e., dis- 
solved into the iron-chromium matrix) by heat treatment, it is seen that a 
material can be produced which is insoluble in water, and which possesses that 
homogeneity which removes the possibility of galvanic action. Such a material, 
therefore, could be termed a corrosion-resistant alloy. 

The effect of carbon: In a high-chromium corrosion-resisting steel, the car- 
bon is present in the form of a chromium carbide. This carbide contains 94.5% by 
weight of chromium and 5.5% by weight of carbon. It will thus be seen that 
each point of carbon takes to itself about seventeen points of chromium. For 
example, a high-chromium steel containing .10% carbon uses up 1.70% chro- 
mium, while a .30% carbon steel uses about 5.00% of chromium in the form of 
carbide. 

When these high-chromium steels are in the annealed condition, the chro- 
mium which is held as carbide is not useful for resisting corrosion. When the 
same steels are hardened, however, and the carbide is in solution, all of the 
chromium then becomes available for resisting corrosion. This point is men- 
tioned in order to explain why, in a steel of any given chromium content, the 
resistance to corrosion increases as the percentage of carbon decreases. It also 
explains one reason why hardening increases the stainless properties of these 
alloys and further explains why the high-carbon "Stainless Steels" stand in 
greater need of hardening than the low-carbon "Stainless Irons." 

The effect of chromium: The second point to be emphasized is even more 
important and is less generally understood. If we make up a series of low- 
carbon iron-chromium alloys (all of which contain .10% carbon) in which the 
chromium varies from zero at one end of the series up to 30.00% at the other 
end of the series, and then test the chemical and physical properties of each 
steel, we make one very striking observation. 

As the percentage of chromium reaches approximately 15.00%, the entire 
physical characteristics of the alloys change; the steels containing less than 

{71} 



LANCASTER MJnSfSaSHl IRON WORKS 
Stainless Steel — Continued 

14.00% chromium are entirely unrelated to those containing more than 16.00% 
chromium. (The range between 14.00% and 16.00% chromium is a sort of 
transition zone and partakes of the properties of both groups.) It is absolutely 
necessary for a prospective user of low -carbon chromium steels to understand 
this division into two groups, because alloys containing less than 14.00% 
chromium are suitable for entirely different uses from those containing more 
than 16,00% chromium. 

There is only one property which is practically continuous as the chromium 
increases, and that is the resistance to corrosion. It may be truthfully said that, 
other things being equal, the higher the chromium the greater the resistance 
to heat and corrosion. This property is continuous throughout the entire series 
up to 30.00% chromium. 

f t f 

Some of the important features of chromium alloys may be summarized as 
follows : 

1. The higher the carbon, the lower the corrosion-resistance. 

2. The higher the chromium, the better the corrosion-resistance. 

3. Chromium-irons containing less than 15.00% chromium are entirely 
different physically from those containing more than 15.00% chromium. 

The Lower Chromium Alloys: 

Can be heat-treated to show remarkable tensile properties. 

Are not subject to notch brittleness — -are extremely tough. 

Are not subject to excessive grain-growth at high temperatures. 

Will air-harden after forging, welding or riveting. 

Are very ductile both hot and cold. 

Machine readily. 

Possess good corrosion -resisting properties. 

Can be economically fabricated. 

The Higher Chromium Alloys: 
Do not respond to heat-treatment. 
Are extremely brittle in sharp-notched sections. 
Are liable to excessive grain -growth at high temperatures. 
Do not air-harden after forging, welding or riveting. 
Are moderately ductile both hot and cold. 
Machine satisfactorily. 

Possess super corrosion-resisting properties. 
Are somewhat more expensive to fabricate. 

4. Corrosion tests conducted under commercial conditions are much more 
dependable than laboratory tests. 

5. Non-tarnishable surfaces are possible only when the scale is entirely 
removed. The scale need not be removed where appearance is not a vital factor. 

6. Corrosive attack is considerably influenced by galvanic effects produced 
by contact with other metals. 

■172} 



LANCASTER MjaS^OSSSM IRON WORKS 



Welding — Gas and Electric 




Gas Welded Pressure Vessels 7' dia. x 38' long manufactured under 
Procedure Control. These vessels are tested to three times the 
Working Pressure to insure absolute tightness under severe operating 

conditions. 



While Welding is not yet an exact science, still an unusual amount of Welded 
Steel Construction has been put into use in the past few years with extremely 
good results. The practical uses to which Welding has been applied and the 
recent extensive experiments in the Welding Field, have brought about better 
methods of Shop and Field Welding. The results have been in many cases even 
more satisfactory than for Riveted Work and have popularized Welding in all 
fields. 

The Lancaster Iron Works has kept pace with the advancement and manu- 
factures Welded Storage and Pressure Vessels as well as Piping and general 
Steel Plate Construction. 

We cannot, however, guarantee any Welded Work if improperly designed, 
any more than we could guarantee improperly designed Riveted Work. The 
same problems of design are encountered with Welded Joints as with other 
types. 

Assuming that the design is correct and the proper procedure is followed in 
manufacture, there can be no doubt about the tensile strength of either the 
weld metal, or the base metal, because these can easily be determined by tensile 
test. This has been done numberless times and it has been found that the 
tensile strength runs from 45,000 pounds to 75,000 pounds per square inch, de- 
pending upon the welding rod and process used. 

Our engineers will be glad to assist with problems of design and our shops are 
excellently equipped to handle any ordinary kind of electric-arc or oxy-acety- 
lene welding. 



un 



LANCASTER "ISoSftXllB IRON WORKS 



**= 



=£♦>♦* 



Sulphuric Acid Storage Tanks — Vertical Type 



Building Acid 
Storage Tanks is 
quite another 
thing from the 
fabrication of or- 
dinary Steel Plate 
Work. Only the 
most experienced 
shop and field 
workmen can be 
used. In our or- 
ganization are men 
who have special- 
ized on Acid-Plant 
construction and 
we are well able to 
take care of any 
requirements for 
such work. 



Absorption and Scrubber Towers 7 l /z ft. x 31% ft. 
At extreme right 50 ft. diameter Acid Storage Tank. 

Principal Uses of Sulphuric Acid 

For decomposing salts with the production of nitric acid, hydrochloric acid 
and sodium sulphate, thus indirectly in manufacturing soda ash, soap, glass, etc. 

For the purification of oils- — petroleum, tar oils, etc. 

For pickling iron articles previous to tinning or galvanizing. 

As a drying agent in the production of organic dyes, on which the textile 
industry depends. 

For rendering soluble mineral and animal phosphate for manures for 
agriculture. 

For the manufacture of nitric acid from saltpetre. 

Sulphuric acid forms the starting point of or is used in almost every impor- 
tant industry. 




Degrees 
Baum£ 


Specific 
Gravity 


Per Cent 
H 2 S0 4 


Weight of 
1 Cu. Ft. 
Pounds 


Gallons 
Per Ton 


Cu. Feet 
Per Ton 


Weight 
Per Gal. 
Pounds 


50 
55 
60 
66 


1.5263 
1.6111 
1.7059 
1.8354 


62.18 
69.65 
77.67 
93.19 


95.20 
100.48 
106.40 
114.47 


157.1955 
148.9203 
140.6469 
130.7189 


21.0084 
19.9044 
18.7969 
17.4718 


12.723 

13.430 
14.220 
15.300 



<74> 



LANCASTER 



AST((Lt>UU(ONil 



■♦«t 



IRON WORKS 



dfr* 




6' dia. x 26' Circulating Tanks for Contact Acid Plant — All Acid 
Tanks and Piping furnished by Lancaster Iron Works 



Sulphuric 


Acid Storage Tanks — Horizontal Type 


Dia, of Tank 


Capacity in 

Tons Per Foot 

of Length 


Degrees 

Baume 


Specific 
Gravity 


Per Cent 
H 2 S0 4 


4' 
4' 
4' 
4' 


. 597981 
.631210 
.668340 
.719100 


50 
55 
60 
66 


1.5263 
1.6111 

1.7059 
1.8354 


62.18 
69.65 
77.67 
93.19 


5' 
5' 

5' 
5' 


.934771 
.986299 

1.044316 
1.123632 


50 
55 
60 
66 


1.5263 
1.6111 

1.7059 
1.8354 


62 . 18 
69.65 
77.67 
93.19 


6' 
6' 
6' 
6' 


1.395521 

1.420289 
1.503836 
1.618128 


50 
55 
60 
66 


1 . 5263 
1.6111 

1 . 7059 
1.8354 


62.18 
69 . 65 
77.67 
93.19 


7' 
7' 
7' 
7' 


1.831348 

1.933064 
2.046826 
2.202282 


50 
55 
60 
66 


1.5263 
1.6111 
1.7059 
1.8354 


62.18 
69.65 
77.67 
93.19 


8' 
8' 
8' 
8' 


2.39198 

2.52490 
2.67343 
2.87647 


50 
55 
60 
66 


1.5263 
1.6111 
1.7059 
1.8354 


62.18 
69.65 
77.67 
93.19 


9' 
9' 
9' 
9' 


3.02737 
3.19560 
3.38357 
3.64055 


50 
55 
60 
66 


1 . 5263 
1.6111 
1.7059 
1.8354 


62.18 
69.65 
77.67 
93.19 


10' 
10' 
10' 
10' 


3.73750 
3.94519 

4.17772 
4.49452 


50 
55 
60 
66 


1 . 5263 
1.6111 
1 . 7059 
1.8354 


62.18 
69.65 
77.67 
93.19 



{75} 



LANCASTER 



TAMKB 
EEL Kiair CONSTRUCTION MB 



IRON WORKS 



**= 



=£4- 



Water Standpipes 




When a City, a Village or an Industrial Plant 
buys a Standpipe, they don't want to worry 
about the proper design or how it should be 
fabricated. Our long experience enables us to 
satisfy the most exacting demands and speci- 
fications. We erect with our own crews and 
equipment and can furnish Standpipes of Iron 
or Steel Construction, or of Copper-bearing 
Steel, if desired. 



STAJ^DPIPES should be Correctly De- 
signed, Carefully Built and Properly 
Erected 



Standpipe 30' dia. x 95' high 

Lancaster Standard 
1,000,000 gallon Standpipe 
can be furnished in varying diameters 
and heights. 

Over twenty of these standard 
Standpipes have been built and 
erected by us throughout Pennsyl- 
vania, Maryland, North Carolina, 
New Jersey, New York, Massa- 
chusetts and elsewhere. 




Standpipe 54' dia. x 60' high 



•176} 



LANCASTER TESTES US IRON WORKS 



=£♦+■ 



Refinery Construction 




Photograph of Vaporizer — 10' dia. x 43' long constructed of 1 Vi" steel 

plate throughout designed and built for 200 pounds pressure. Weight 

of Vaporizer 90,000 pounds. 

In the construction of difficult and heavy Refinery Equipment, our two large 
steel fabricating plants are able to take care of almost any kind of work. 

Stills, Agitators, Condenser Boxes, Absorbers, Fractionators, Rundown 
Tanks and Storage Tanks of any size, can be built to standard or individual 
specifications. 

Our Engineering Department and Plant Facilities are at your service. 




Shipping Large Fractionators for a Mid' West Refinery 



{77} 



LANCASTER T^lfllS IRON WORKS 



a** 



Standard Specifications 
LANCASTER 

Field Storage Tanks 




Lancaster is especially equipped to design, manufacture and erect Field 
Storage Tanks for practically every storage purpose. The standard sizes range 

in 

Capacities from 1,000 to 80,000 Barrels 

SPECIAL TANKS of any size are designed, fabricated and erected to meet 
special storage conditions and specifications. In special work, give the following 
information: Use; Capacity; Height; Erection conditions at proposed site; 
Distance from nearest railroad siding. 

Lancaster Engineers will be glad to assist you with any problems you may 
have pertaining to Field Storage Tanks of large capacity or unusual storage or 
construction conditions. 



{78} 



•♦«= 



LANCASTER 



IRON WORKS 



=»♦• 





APPROX. 

SHIPPING 
WEIGHTS 


i 


1 


i 


1 


1 


| 


| 


1 
g 


1 


| 


I 


I 


1 


1 


1 


1 


8 


3 

3 

3 


TOP 
CURB 
ANGLE 

Inches 


X* 
1 

X 


1 

K 
IT 


-- 

X 


I 

! 


X 

1 
! 


X 


5 
1 

x 


1 
X 

! 


J' 

1 

1 


X 

I 

! 


x" 

X 


-7 

K 

X 

X 


K 

X 


X 
1 


M 


-* 

N 


X 


Q 

1 

> 

3 


S 



H 


I 


"1-IJ 1 l,3 ^ S 


x 


X 


X 


X 


j* 


X 


x; 


-■* 


-■* 


-" 


_- 


_■* 


_■» 


X 


X 


-" 


X 


^ 


' | JB[nBUB}39^ 


s 


^ 


X 


J 


„* 


X 


j" 


X 


X 


X* 


X 


J> 


-?■ 


„> 


X 


X 


J! 


2 


1 U 

Ml 


X 

1 

! 


1 


x 1 

M 

x 

? 


si 

$ 


X 

$ 
1 


X 


X 

M 

X 

1 






M 

9 


-- 

K 
*3 


-3 


!8 




X" 


S 


S 


I 




2 


•MfMt] 
































i* 


X 


3 

m 

I 

1 
i 


HUIOf 
!B3tU3 A 
































3 


3 


•M|a«] 
■tau^tqx 3WId 
































X 


x 


O 

z 

3 


•Mpq 






























J' 


X 


x 


HUlOf 
IB31JJ3A 






























3 


3 


3 


} 


■ MUjpiU.X *J»ld 






























x 


x 


x 






2 

i 


•J313UIBIQ J3AIH 












x 


X 


X 


_" 


x 


x 


X 


x 


X 


^ 


^ 


x 


■5 

c 

s 


I"3t*J»A 












3 


3 


J 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


tISU^3tl|X »»oid 












X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


- s 


- 


X 


X 




z 

8 


•J9)3IUSIQ 53A1J1 






X 




-" 


X 


£ 


X 


X 


X 


X 


x 


^ , " 


X 


X 


X 


X 




I«3I)J9A 






J 




3 


J 


j 


J 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 




■Mu^ajHX », Fld 






X 




x 


x 


X 


x 


x 


-* 


X 


X 


X 


- 


x 


X 


X- 






2 

3 


SJiJSOIBIQ 5 JA1 JJ 


..- 


r* 


X 


z 


x 


X 


X 


X 


X 


x 


X 


X 


X 


™" 


,';■ 


X 


^ 


d 


etuiof 

IB3IU»A 


j 


3 


3 


3 


j 


3 


3 


J 


J 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


J 

g 

3 

i 


Mpq 

winptqx WId 


<* 


x 


X 


X 


X 


~* 


^ 


X 


X 


* 


_* 


X 


-* 


X 


- s 


X 


X 


8 


S3U3UI 

sja)3tu«tQ )9a;h 


X 


~ r * 


.r 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


«,- 


X 


X 


•jr. 


X 


X 


~ 


X 


X 


syuiof 

|*3f»j»A' 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


J 


3 


j 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


S 


• 


5 


i 


UtfStt] 

•Minpitjx ^*Id 


X 


x 


X 


x 


x 


-" 


X 


x 


X 


X 


^ 


., a 


X 


X 


^ , 


X 


X 


d 

3 



2 
X 




X 


X 


r 


s 


£ 


X 


x 


X 


,;' 


x 


X 


X 


,.:" 


X 


X 


- 


- 


SJUIOf 


j 


j 


3 


3 


j 


3 


3 


J 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


* 

1 


S 


n 


! 


sssu^aiqx 3J»Id 


X 


X 


X 


X 


-T 


x 


X 


x 


X 


X 


*?. 


X 


- s 


X 


x 


x 


X 


* 


BJqiul ptIF J3»J UI 
SXHQ13H 


I 


3 


? 


s 


| 


I 


1 


1 


| 


? 


j 


| 


? 


o 


I 


1 


2 


1 

CO 

1 


(»t)3UI PUB }»3j UI 

SH313WVia 


1 


I 


I 


J 


J 


? 


f 


J 


I 


| 


£ 


s 


1 


J 


I 


J 


TT 


3 
1 


AX 


'O S71 £* •■piJBH «I 
IDVdVO 1VNIWON 


o 


i 


I 


1 


§ 




1 


o 


1 


| 


1 


1 


£ 


1 


o 

5 


i 


i 

« 


u 

(- 


2 



{79} 



♦«= 



LANCASTER 






IRON WORKS 



OD 








J4 




u 
3 




.2 a 







rt 


> « 







H 

ft) 

bJD 


w '3 




d 











4-> 


« 3 


d 




GO 


? ^ 


,,h 






£ ti 


>> 




i— 1 


& 8 






u 


* 8* 


n 




4-» 









<U 


! § 


& 




> 




« 
3 




*T3 


> y 






s 




u 
5 




s 

4-> 


y 




CO 

4-> 


1 & 

o ■ 

23 to 

3 3 


s 

3 


X 

d 
9 


4-» 


C 


u 


00 


UO 


tj B 


y 


t^ 


§ 


pi > 




to 
y 
bi 




& "9 


y 


rt 


3 


§ ^2 


i 


d 




CJ 


2? 


o 


d 







5 


? 


u 


fl s 


q 


a 


u 

o 


rt 

d 8 

i & 


9 


<o 


Ph 


y 
■ 
1 


10 


a 


£ 

A ^ 


A 


i 


rt 


«> o\ 




+■> 


a 


to <s 


s c 


Tl 


•*H 


S ON 


•i-4 . 


• ( 


ft) 


3 H 


3 9 




S 


1 




a 


< 


m 


u 


to 



lift 


§ 


s 


1 


1 

8 




i 


1 


1 
jj 


i 


I 

s 


i 


2 


»lH|d 


Ir 


a 


> 


> 


> 


> 


> 


X 


Sr 


> 


> 


Sk 


1 «H 


Si 

1 
$ 


1 


1 

8 


s 

1- 


I 
| 


X 

| 


> 


s 
1 


3 


J" 

! 


i 


Sf 

1 

1 


e "mid 


^ 


o 


" 


o 


s 


2 


s 


^ 


Q^ 


s^ 


AC 


22 


1 HiM 


i 
J 


1 


| 
I 


j 


X 

1 


■5 


1 


X 

I 


X 

■a 


j 


■a 


1 
1 


4 


u 








> 








> 








X 


ii 








3 








3 








3 


m 








! 








* 










1 


u 






> 


.> 






> 


> 






X 


X 


it 






3 


j 






3 


3 






3 


3 


m 






! 


I 






! 


j 






A 




i 


u 




> 


> 


> 




> 


> 


X 




X 


X 


Se 


u 




3 


j 


3 




3 


3 


3 




3 


3 


3 


m 




s 


! 






5 


J 


A" 






s 


| 


I 
1 


u 


fe 


JT 


>. 


*- 


> 


> 


Sr 


X 


X 


X 


x 


x 


u 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


w 


I 


! 


! 


£ 


! 


» 


" 


A 


2 


« 


A 


2 


J 


u 


» 


> 


Sc 


Sr 


> 


Sk 


Se 


X 


X 


Sr 


I* 


^ 


u 


3 


3 


J 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


m 


E 


! 


A 


s 


! 


« 


« 


2 


A 


j 


2 


I 


I 


u 


« 


Se 


1- 


Sr 


X 


Sr 


■X 


Sr 


X 


Sr 


Sk 


SK 


it 


^ 


j 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


Eh" 


I 


Sk 


A 


o 


Z 


2 


s 


a 


a 


I 


a 


l 


u 


k 


Sr 


Sr 


Sr 


k 


X 


X 


x 


Sr 


I" 


if. 


» 


to 
>^1 


^ 


3 


3 


j 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


III 


9 


o 


« 


9 


2 


A 


9 


J 


2 


5 


J 


! 






« 


> 


Se 


lr 


> 


X 


Sr 


X 


^* 


X 


ja 


k 


■ ii 


3 


J 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


a 


m 




A 


•g 


^ 


3k 


!j 


! 


A : 


s 


! 


s 


s 


■E 


\ 


^ 


- 


i 


"a 


, 


8 


C 


£ 


& 


1 


s 


H 


1 


| 


| 


i 


1 


1 


§ 


1 


1 


i 


1 


I 


i * 


« 


£ 
? 


S 



{80} 



LANCASTER TssMK&S 



IRON WORKS 



J* 


§ 


2 


I 


i 


i 

i 


j 


i 


i 


5 


5 


i 

i 


1 
i 


I 
i 


i 


i 


r 


uwtd 


Sr 


> 


Sr 


> 


> 


> 


> 


Sr 


> 


> 


> 


> 


fe 


> 


•„ 


> 


1 «H 


fl 

a . 


g 


fl 

B 


g 


a 


9 


a 


fl 


fl 




-2" 


a 


fl 


a 


a 


^3 


. »>.« 


»g 




. ,; 


. ; : 




o '-, 




.« 


&g 


Z'Z 


mm 


- r i 




:•:■ 


;: 


s£ 


1 mt4 


: : 


| 


1 


i 


1 


„.' 


,/ 


i 


1 


-; 


J? 
j 




J 


.{ 


f 


f 


5 

1 


u 








> 








fe 








Sr 








Sr 


1! 








3 








3 








3 








3 


m 








2 








2 








o 








S 


1 
i 


u 






Sr 


> 






Sr 


k 






Sr 


> 






Sr 


Sr 


it 






3 


3 






3 


3 






3 


3 






•a 


3 


Hi 






s 


i 






a 


9 






« 


. 






o 


2 


1 


u 




i- 


Sr 


: ' 




■- 


Sr 


Sr 




> 


fe 


k 




« 


Sr 


SsT 


it. 




a 


3 


3 




a 


3 


2 




3 


3 


3 




3 


3 


3 


m 




2 


t 


2 




2 


2 


2 




2 


2 


! 




s 


a 


I 


i 

K 

1 


u 


Sr 


s 


k 


Sr 


i* 


Sr 


> 


» 


Sr 


Sr 


> 


* 


:• 


Sr 


> 


2 


ti 


j 


J 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


m 


2 


i 


1 


a 


2 


g 


i 


1 


jj 


o 


! 


\ 


1 


g 


S 


3 


i 

1 


u 


Sr 


Sr 


> 


Sr 


Sr 


Sr 


** 


Sr 


Sr 


Sr 


Sr 


It 


Sfc 


Sr 


Sr 


Sc 




3 


n 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


5 


3 


3 


3 


2 


& 


s 


i 


a 


A 


o 


a 


I 


fl 


2 


S 


1 


2 


g 


I 


3 


s 


I 


fa 


Sr 


Sr 


It 


Sr 


Sr 


** 


Sr 


&■ 


Sr 


Sr 


^* 


Sr 


It 


Sr 


^ 


i, 


1! 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


S 


3 


3 


i 


1 


3 


1 


a 


2 


ill 


2 


a 


! 


£ 


^ 


I 


a 


e 


S 


! 


1 


j 


i 


2 


| 


2 


1 


li 


5r 


Sr 


k 


Sr 


Sr 


Sr 


Sr 


Sr 


Sr 


Sr 


§R 


Sr 


Sr 


Sr 


u 


* 


1! 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 


5 


a 


3 


s 


2 


£ 


1 


s 


i 


2 


Hi 


a 




2 


& 


1 


2 


2 


i 


| 


a 


i 


1 


2 


I 

H 


) 


1 


I 


U 


Sr 


Sr 


It 


Sr 


Sr 


"* 


S 


"t 


Sr 


'- 


k 


t. 


Se 


- 


fe 


s 


Ij 


3 


3 


3 


s 


3 


5 


2 


3 


5 


1 


£ 


I 


i 


£ 


s 


1 


III 




S 


& 


i 


2 


4 

s 


1 


flj 


2 


! 


1 






s 






! 


£ 




o 


i 


i 





i 


i 


i 


■ 


j 


i 


a 


2 


? 


1} 


H 


| 


1 

1 


1 


1 

g 


% 

9 


i 


i 


i 

s 


i 


i 


i 
i 


§ 

2 


l 

R 


1 


! 


i 

s 


H 




i 

s 




i 



<81> 



LANCASTER TSS^HS IRON WORKS 



Standard Specifications 

LANCASTER 
Molasses Storage Tanks 




Standard Sises 100,000 to 2,000,000 Gallons 



Molasses Storage Tanks are necessarily designed and built of heavier ma- 
terials, with higher efficiency joints than ordinarily used in Storage Tanks. 

They must be properly vented and constructed with every possible safety 
feature embodied to minimize danger from explosion. 

Our experience in building and erecting Molasses Storage or other kinds of 
Syrup Storage Tanks for the large sugar companies enables us to take care of 
your requirements with speed and satisfaction. 

See Table of Specifications on opposite page. 



<82 r 



-H8C 



LANCASTER 



IRON WORKS 



=©>+■ 



09 

a 

H 




APPROX. 
SHIPPING 
WEIGHTS 
WITHOUT 

ROOF 
(Open Top) 


£ 


£ 
I 


£ 

to* 

ID 


X) 

1 

)0 


£ 


£ 
Ov 

n 

© 


£ 

o 


£ 

©_ 

© 


£ 
© 

00 

00 


£ 

rn 

© 


y 



4-> 


•^ S3 2 
§ S £ x b 
E & 2 g 8 

ill 58 


CM 
tO 
P| 


£ 

CO 


£ 

rn 
o 


£ 
5 

n 

00* 


£ 
• 
©* 


£ 


£ 


© 


£ 

o 
tq 

to 


£ 

rn 

© 


</3 
CO 

9 

m 
ctf 


.g3 

O 5 

B 8 5 


k 

X 
X 


x 
«*» 

X 
rn 


M 

m 

M 


X 


M 

H 

<*> 


k 

M 


k 

M 

? 


k 

M 

<*> 
M 


k 


k 

X 


1 

i 


ss^ujpiqx a»B W 


k 


» 


3? 


k 


k 


k 


k 


k 


k 


k 


I 

a 

H3 


III 


1 

M 

* 

m 


M 

* 

? 


X 

* 

? 

rn 


i 

M 

* 

? 


* 
? 


k 

M 

k 
k 


k 

H 

* 

? 


k 

M 
f 


k 
S 


k 


O 
g 


SJ3}SUI8ia 13AI£| 












k 


\Q0 


k 


k 


k 


S 

4-> 

CO 

a 

u 

d 
a 


SJUIOf iE3tua A 












3 


J 


3 


3 


3 


sw^NX »lBId 












k 


k 


k 


k 


k 


O 

S 


SJ?]3lUetQ J3AIJI 


k 


s? 


k 


X 


k 


k 


k 


k 


k 


k 


SJUlOf [B3I1J3/V 


3 


3 


3 


J 


3 


3 


3 


3 


3 | j 


SMintstqx aieid | n* 


3? 


X 


i I 3! 


k 1 k 


< 


k I k 


CO 

O 

3 


BwiauieiQ WAia 1 ^ 


* 


k 


k 1 k 1 k I k I k 


k 


k 


tJUIOf [B3tl«A, 1 2 


3 | 2 


3 13 3 13 13 




3 


j 


swmpiqx siBH | ^ 


x« I k 


i* | !* | h 1 x 1 x 


se 


3"* 





o 

1 
8 


SJ9)3UieiQ »3AI^ J * 


X 1 k 


k 1 k I k I » | k I 


k 


k 


SJUIOf |B3IJJ3 A, 


s 


2 1 3 


3 | 3 | 2 | 3 | 3 | 


* 

j 


2 


s 


ESSUipitJX *lBld 


3? 


:* 


35 


3? 


* 1 i I k I k 1 


k 


k 





5 


SWpUJBtQ J3AIJI 


k 


k 


k 


3? 


k 1 k 


2* 1 k 


k 


. 


4^ 

cti 


S)U!Of IB31JJ3 A 


3 


CM 


(M 


3 


n 
** 


3 


3 | 3 


S 


2 




ES3U3|3iqx 3}BId 


* 


3? 


i 


* 


h 


k 


X | X 


# 


k 


SXHOI3H 


? 

CM 


i 
t 


* 

C* 




"y 




1 

? 


i 

rn 
is 




i 

? 
© 

rn 


CO 




saaxawvia 




* 
m 


k 

-I 






irt 


2 


1 

? 

Q0 


? 
| 


V 

s 




AXI 


iuoiibo S - a ui 
3VdVD TVNIWON 


g 

o 
o 

e 


©" 


§ 

© 

©" 
o 


I 


© 

© 

© 


o 

© 
© 
© 

© 


© 
© 


I 

© 
© 

© 


o 

© 


g 

© 
© 

© 



! 

C 
J 



{ 88 J 



LANCASTER 



IRON WORKS 



=»♦• 



Dredge Pipe 




Riveted or Welded Shore and Pontoon Pipe 



Lancaster Dredge Pipe is known throughout the United States, wherever 
suction dredge work is being carried on. 

We have been pioneers in the design and development of modern dredge pipe 
and construct many miles of pipe annually. 

Any style pipe can be supplied 12" dia. and upwards, made of our Special 
Analysis Pipe Steel containing a high percentage of carbon and manganese. 

Shore Pipe constructed with our special Posey Joints fits easily and will last 
longer. 



PONTOON CYLINDERS— CATAMARANS 
GATE VALVES— WYE-BRANCHES 
COMBINATION " WYE -VALVES" 
STEEL BARGES AND DREDGE HULLS 




Dredge Pipe Wye Branch — Side Outlet Type 
<84> 



LANCASTER T5™flfS IRON WORKS 
Barges and Dredges 




Dredge Hulls, Car Floats, Gold, Tin and Platinum Dredges, complete 

with Superstructure, Ladders, Housing, etc., built in our shops and 

erected anywhere. 




Part of a fleet of all-steel Barges 25' x 85' x 7', designed and fabricated 
in our shops and erected and launched in our yards along the Chesa- 
peake Bay. These Barges were towed to Miami, Florida, loaded with 
Lancaster Dredge Pipe and Pontoons. 



{85} 



STEEL PIAU COsiTmjCnOufcJ 



IRON WORKS 






For Steam, Vapor and Hot Water Heating 
Constructed for Burning 

Coal, Gas or Oil as Fuel 

The Monitor Bi-Loop Radiator Company has recently been absorbed by the 
Lancaster Iron Works, Inc., and the well-known Monitor "U" Tube Boilers, on 
the market and used successfully since 1888, are now being manufactured and 
distributed from our plant in Lancaster, Pa. 

Monitor Steel Boilers have stood the test of time. Thousands of Monitor 
Boiler installations are still giving good service, many of them after more than 
thirty years usage under severe conditions. 

Adaptability to Oil Burning. The Moni- 
tor Boiler is ideally designed for the burning 
of oil. The steel shell and tubes will stand the 
sudden flash of a hot flame and each "U" 
shaped Tube, being a separate circulating 
medium and in direct contact with the flame 
of an oil burner assure rapid circulation and 
quick steaming. The base of the Monitor 
Boiler is so constructed that the installation 
of an oil burner can be made with little effort. 




/^ 



^ 



^ doe*** J 



486) 



LANCASTER 



IRON WORKS 



=s++- 



In continuing the manufacture and distribution of Monitor "U" Tube 
Boilers, it is the policy of the Lancaster Iron Works to continue the high stand- 
ards established by the former company, both in design and quality of 
workmanship. 

Scientific construction and the use of the finest materials obtainable has 
given Monitor Boilers, an enviable reputation for fuel economy, durability and 
reliability. The sturdy steel shell is constructed of the best steel boiler plate 
similar to the material used for high pressure boilers. The "U" Tubes are of the 
highest grade Charcoal Iron such as is standard in locomotive construction. 
The base, grates, smoke-hood, dome and baffle plate are of cast iron and no 
part of the steel shell comes in contact with the floor of cellar or foundation. 
As shown by the sectional view below, the shell of the Monitor "U" Tube 
Boiler is of all steel construction, the inner and outer shell plates are of \£' 
flange steel, 2" x 2" steel rings, top, bottom and fire door, bull riveted with %* 
button head rivets, fitted with 2" No. 9 gauge charcoal iron locomotive tubing 

and tested to a hydrostatic test of 
100 lbs. per square inch, allowing a 
working pressure of 1 5 lbs. per square 
inch for low pressure. 

In our 35" and 40" boilers, we use 
a 3" x 3" steel ring, otherwise the 
construction is as stated above. 

You will note by the arrangement 
of the "U" shaped tubes that each 
tube is in direct contact with the 
flame, thus causing a most rapid 
circulation. There are no threaded 
connections on the inside of the 
Monitor boiler, the tubes being ex- 
panded to the inner shell with no 
chance for the loosening of joints. 
At the termini of each tube there are 
threaded plugs in the outside shell 
providing for the easy replacement 
of tubes. Such replacements however 
are very rarely necessary during the 
lifetime of the boiler. 

When special requirements are 
needed we can construct boilers for 
any specified pressure, built in ac- 
cord with the A.S.M.E. and State 
Code. 

Send for Bulletin containing sizes 
and general information, if inter- 
ested. 




487} 



LANCASTER 



^kstUL ClAtt CON STRUCT ION BB 



IRON WORKS 



*#= 



=«♦+• 



Brick Machinery 




The "Martin** Model 46 
Autobrik Machine 



Aside from Steel Plate Construction work, an important division of the 
Lancaster Iron Works, Inc., lies in the manufacture of Automatic Brick Mak- 
ing Machinery, known as AutoBrik Machinery. Our Brick Machinery Shops 
are the largest in the world, and Lancaster AutoBrik Equipment is now pro- 
ducing over 15% of the yearly output of building bricks in this country alone. 

The AutoBrik Machine in the above illustration is made in several sizes 
varying in capacity from 50,000 to 120,000 brick per day. Its operations are 
entirely automatic and are a radical improvement over methods as used 
twenty years ago. 

Other Brick Plant Equipment in the Lancaster Line includes Driers, Auto- 
Clay Cleaners, Pug Mills, Granulators, Disintegrators, Crushers, Represses — 
in fact every essential piece of equipment necessary to economical, high speed 
production of building brick. 



{88} 



LANCASTER TMklf US IRON WORKS 



•♦*5C 



=Sf+- 




LANCASTER IRON WORKS 

SOUTH PLANT AND OFFICE 

Prince and Hager Streets 

Lancaster, Penna. 

In addition to the large Plate Shops and Machine Shops at our South Plant, 
we also maintain in Lancaster, our North Plant, comprising over ten acres and 
where we have installed the most modern machinery and equipment for 
fabricating every kind of steel Plate Work. 

Our modern Foundry, also located in Lancaster, makes a specialty of all 
kinds of Gray Iron Castings. Send for Foundry Bulletin, if interested. 




LANCASTER TANKS 



{89} 



LANCASTER 



^bSTUL PI ATI CONSTRUCTION MM 



IRON WORKS 



■♦*: 



=©>♦■ 



Lancaster Steel Plate Products 



Field Storage Tanks 
Towers and Standpipes 
Stacks or Chimneys — 

Self -Supported and Guyed 

Types 
Breechings 
Dust Flues 
Air Ducts 
Hot-Blast Mains 



Riveted or Welded Pipe 
Hydraulic Mains 
Gas Pipe 
Bustle Piping 



Coal Bunkers 
Hoppers, Bins 
Chutes 
Penstocks 
Flumes 
Caissons 
Troughs 
Blast Furnaces 



Lancaster Pipe 



Land Pipe 
Pontoon Pipe 
Pipe Elbows 
Pontoon Cylinders 



Barges 
Dredges 
Hearth Jackets 
Downcomers 
Gas Holders 
Gas Producers 
Cupolas 
Stoves 



Catamarans 

Dredge Pipe Accessories 
Ball Joints, Gate Valves 
Y's, Etc. 



INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT 

Lancaster Apparatus and Machinery 



Accumulators 

Agitators, Acid 

Agitators, Wash 

Air Locks 

Air Shafting 

Annealing Boxes 

Autoclaves 

Barometric Condensers 

Benzol Washers 

Blast Furnace Equipment 

Blow Cases 

Casing, Iron and Steel 

Casinghead Gasoline 

Absorption Towers 
Casinghead Gasoline 

Accumulator Tanks 
Casinghead Gasoline 

Blending Tanks 
Casinghead Gasoline 

Equipment 
Casinghead Gasoline 

Scrubber Tanks 
Casinghead Gasoline Tanks 



Acid Tanks 
Air Tanks 
Asphalt Tanks 
Barge Tanks 
Blow-Off Tanks 
Brine Tanks 
Car Tanks 
Casinghead Tanks 
Cement Tanks 
Chemical Tanks 
Compressed Air Tanks 
Condenser Tanks 
Cyanide Tanks 
Creosote Tanks 
Dipping Tanks 
Distributing Station Tanks 
Elevator Tanks 
Expansion Tanks 
Filling Station Tanks 
Filtering Tanks 



Centrifugals 

Cement Kilns 

Charging Boxes 

Clarifiers 

Concentrators 

Cooling Towers 

Creosoting Cylinders 

Crystallizers 

Denitrators 

Digestors 

Distillation Apparatus 

Drum Dryers 

Drying Ovens 

Evaporators 

Extractors 

Equipment, Refinery 

Kettles 

Kilns 

Ladles 

Nitrators 

Ore Bins 

Plates and Structural Work 

Pulverizers 

Lancaster Tan\s 

Fuel Oil Tanks 
Galvanizing Tanks 
Garage Air Tanks 
Gasoline Tanks 
Gas Tanks 
Grain Tanks 
Grease Tanks 
Hot Water Tanks 
Hydro-pneumatic Tanks 
Jacketed Tanks 
Knocked Down Tanks 
Lime Tanks 
Linseed Oil Tanks 
Mixing Tanks 
Molasses Tanks 
Naphtha Tanks 
Oil Storage Tanks 
Pressure Tanks 
Quenching Tanks 
Receiving Tanks 



Purifiers 

Reducers 

Refinery Construction 

Re-evaporators 

Regenerators 

Retorts 

Rotary Filters 

Rotary Dryers 

Direct Fired 
Rotary Dryers 

Indirect Fired 
Saturators 
Scale Boxes 
Scrubbers 
Steam Separators 
Stills, Asphalt 
Stills, Crude and Steam 
Sulphonators 
Surface Condensers 
Vats 

Vulcanizers 
Washers 
Water Softeners 



Rectangular Tanks 
Rendering Tanks 
Run Down Tanks 
Separator Tanks 
Settling Tanks 
Soap Tanks 
Sprinkler Tanks 
Storage Tanks 
Sugar House Tanks 
Sulphuric Acid Tanks 
Tar Tanks 
Tender Tanks 
Tower Tanks 
Truck Tanks 
Turpentine Tanks 
Underground Tanks 
Vacuum Tanks 
Varnish Tanks 
Vertical Tanks 
Water Storage Tanks 



{90} 



LANCASTER UESS£S&a IRON WORKS 



Index 



Page 

Acid Storage Tanks 74-75 

A. P. I. (Amer. Pet. Institute) Tank Specifications 80-81 

Boilers, . 86-87 

Bolts, Strength of 58 

Bolts, Weight of 59 

Brick Machinery 88 

Bunkers, Hoppers and Bins . . 67 

Bursting Pressures of Shells 60 

Capacity of Tanks 41-46-47 

Chromium Iron 70-71-72 

Circles, Areas and Circumferences of 42 to 45 incl. 

Circular Plates, Weight of 48-49 

Copper Bearing Steel , 18 

Cylindrical Tanks, Capacity of 46-47 

Dredge Pipe and Accessories 84-85 

Extras on Steel Plates . . . 38-39 

Flat Plates, Design of 63 

Heads, Design of . . 61-62-65 

Horizontal Pressure Tanks 26 to 34 incl. 

Horizontal Storage Tanks .4 to 16 incl. 

Life of Buried Steel Tanks 19 

Molasses Storage Tanks 82-83 

Overweight Allowances on Steel Plates . . . . 50-51 

Products, List of 90 

Rectangular Tanks, Capacity of 41 

Refinery Construction 77 

Regulations on Storage Tanks 20 to 25 incl. 

Rivets, Length of 56 

Rivets, Weight of 57 

Riveted Joints, Design of 52-53 

Shearing and Bearing Values of Rivets 54—55 

Shells, Design of . . 62-63-64 

Stacks, Guyed and Self-Supporting 68-69 

Stainless Steel 70-71-72 

Standpipes . . 76 

Steels, Kinds of 16-17-18 

Vertical Storage Tanks 78 to 83 incl. 

Weights of Liquids 37 

Weights of Steel Plates 40-48-49 

Welded Tanks and Piping 73 

{91 >